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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

the lack of preparatory muscle coordination and/or inappropriate reactive muscle activity. 2 Risk factors for noncontact injuries are therefore modifiable and have been identified through movement patterns, right-to-left asymmetries, and balance abnormalities. 3 The preparticipation examination is a

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi and Stefania Toselli

outstanding mastery of their movements. Unfortunately, during training and competition, they are often subjected to strain that can cause injury. For this purpose, it is important to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice in order to detect eventually functional movement deficits. For the

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Bianca Miarka, Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien and David H. Fukuda

with identifying movement patterns, often referred to as “performance indicators,” in the competitive environment ( Myers, Nevill, & Al-Nakeeb, 2013 ). While match demands have been well described in judo using time-motion data and muscle-group-specific torque production ( Lech, Chwala, Ambrozy

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Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna and David Casamichana

if they played for a minimum of 85% of the game (42 cases were excluded). Because of the differences in position playing times in hockey, 13 this designation was considered to analyze fatigue effect. 6 Movement Patterns Total playing time, total distance covered (m), and maximum speed (km·h −1

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Francesco Campa, Federico Spiga and Stefania Toselli

, endurance, and contralateral muscular imbalances. 6 As sport-related injuries occur frequently, steps to reduce injuries can have an impact on the frequency and associated costs. Cook et al 7 suggested that athletes who continue to train using unsatisfactory movement patterns would be more susceptible to

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Jia Yi Chow, Keith Davids, Chris Button and Robert Rein

From a nonlinear dynamics perspective, presence of movement variability before a change in preferred movement patterns is hypothesized to afford the necessary adaptability and flexibility for seeking novel functional behaviors. In this study, four novice participants practiced a discrete multiarticular movement for 12 sessions over 4 weeks. Cluster analysis procedures revealed how changes between preferred movement patterns were affected with and without the presence of variability in movement clusters before a defined change. Performance improved in all participants as a function of practice. Participants typically showed evidence of change between preferred movement clusters and higher variability in the use of movement clusters within a session. However, increasing variability in movement clusters was not always accompanied by transition from one preferred movement cluster to another. In summary, it was observed that intentional and informational constraints play an important role in influencing the specific pathway of change for individual learners as they search for new preferred movement patterns.

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Weiyang Deng, Douglas L. Vanderbilt and Beth A. Smith

coding for observer identification of types of leg movements (e.g., single leg kicks, leg circles) and kinematic analyses of movement patterns from birth to walking onset in infants with TD. They proposed that early movement patterns, such as alternating kicking in supine position, are precursor to

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Robert Rein, Chris Button, Keith Davids and Jeffery Summers

The present paper proposes a technical analysis method for extracting information about movement patterning in studies of motor control, based on a cluster analysis of movement kinematics. In a tutorial fashion, data from three different experiments are presented to exemplify and validate the technical method. When applied to three different basketball-shooting techniques, the method clearly distinguished between the different patterns. When applied to a cyclical wrist supination-pronation task, the cluster analysis provided the same results as an analysis using the conventional discrete relative phase measure. Finally, when analyzing throwing performance constrained by distance to target, the method grouped movement patterns together according to throwing distance. In conclusion, the proposed technical method provides a valuable tool to improve understanding of coordination and control in different movement models, including multiarticular actions.

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Lindsay M. Minthorn, Shirleeah D. Fayson, Lisa M. Stobierski, Cailee E. Welch and Barton E. Anderson

Clinical Scenario:

Appropriate movement patterns during sports and physical activities are important for both athletic performance and injury prevention. The assessment of movement dysfunction can assist clinicians in implementing appropriate rehabilitation programs after injury, as well as developing injury-prevention plans. No gold standard test exists for the evaluation of movement capacity; however, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been recommended as a tool to screen for movement-pattern limitations and side-to-side movement asymmetries. Limited research has suggested that movement limitations and asymmetries may be linked to increased risk for injury. While this line of research is continuing to evolve, the use of the FMS to measure movement capacity and the development of intervention programs to improve movement patterns has become popular. Recently, additional research examining changes in movement patterns after standardized intervention programs has emerged.

Clinical Question:

Does an individualized training program improve movement patterns in adults who participate in high-intensity activities?

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Jessica G. Markbreiter, Bronson K. Sagon, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee E. Welch

Clinical Scenario:

An individual’s movement patterns while landing from a jump can predispose him or her to lower-extremity injury, if performed improperly. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a clinical tool to assess jump-landing biomechanics as an individual jumps forward from a box. Improper movement patterns, which could predispose an individual to lower-extremity injuries, are scored as errors. However, because of the subjective nature of scoring errors during the task, the consistency and reliability of scoring the task are important. Since the LESS is a newer assessment tool, it is important to understand its reliability.

Focused Clinical Question:

Are clinicians reliable at scoring the LESS to assess jump-landing biomechanics of physically active individuals?