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Karl M. Newell and Steven Morrison

This paper presents a framework for an evolving dynamical landscape of movement forms and their stability over the lifespan. It is proposed that the complexity and dimensionality of movement forms can expand and contract on a number of growth/decay time scales of change including those of adaptation, development, and learning. The expansion and contraction is reflected in: (1) the range of potential movement forms of the individual in developmental time; and (2) the dimensionality and complexity of any single movement form at a moment of observation given the confluence of individual, environmental, and task constraints. It is postulated that practice, exercise, and fatigue also coalesce to change the time scales of complexity and dimension of movement forms.

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Karl M. Newell

program. What follows is a brief statement on the organization of the meeting and the papers arising that are presented here. The theme for the meeting was human movement in action as expressed through the related foundational constructs of movement forms, function, and skill. This is a central topic in

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David K. Wiggins

am, of course, not the only academician to point out the fractured nature of the field and to call for an interdisciplinary approach to the study of physical activity, exercise, sport, and other human movement forms. In fact, I am just the latest in a long line of individuals who have argued for and

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Jonathan Leo Ng, Chris Button, Dave Collins, Susan Giblin, and Gavin Kennedy

the isolation and reproduction of specific movement forms which is arguably not representative of the environments in which movements occur. Hence, finding appropriate ways to assess and monitor movement competence of school-aged children remains an important scientific challenge now and in the future

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Kathleen Williams, Kathleen Haywood, and Ann VanSant

Older adults were tested to clarify findings of an earlier examination of movement responses to shifting task requirements (Williams et al., 1993). Eleven participants (average age = 77 years) were evaluated on form and velocity as they performed overarm throws for force and accuracy. Significant gender and force-accuracy differences occurred for resultant velocity. Although no statistically significant differences occurred for force-accuracy comparisons of movement form, there were trends toward change in most movement components. Additionally, many individuals displayed change in one or more components as they shifted from force to accuracy throws. Results of this study point to the importance of examining developmental status and task requirements simultaneously.

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John H. Challis

Humans of different sizes move in very similar ways despite the size difference. The principles of geometric scaling provide insight into the reasons for the similar movement patterns observed. In human locomotion, body size influences endurance running performance, with shorter body sizes being an advantage due to better heat exchange compared with their taller counterparts. Scaling can also show the equivalence of child gait with that of adults in terms of stride length and walking velocity. In humans, maximum jump height is independent of standing height, a scaling result which has been validated by examining jumps with mass added to the body. Finally, strength scales in proportion to body mass to the two-thirds power, which explains why shorter people have greater relative body strength compared with taller individuals. Geometric scaling reveals the underlying principles of many human movement forms.

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Jongseong An, Gabriele Wulf, and Seonjin Kim

We examined the effects of attentional focus instructions on the learning of movement form and carry distance in low-skilled golfers. The X-factor describes the rotation of the shoulders relative to the pelvis, and its increase during the downswing (so-called X-factor stretch) is associated with the carry distance of the ball. X-factor stretch and carry distance have been shown to be associated with an early weight shift toward the front leg during the downswing. In our study, one group (internal focus, IF) was instructed to focus on shifting their weight to their left foot while hitting the ball, whereas another group (external focus, EF) was instructed to focus on pushing against the left side of the ground. A control (C) group was not given attentional focus instructions. Participants performed 100 practice trials. Learning was assessed after a 3-day interval in a retention test without focus instructions. The EF group demonstrated a greater carry distance, X-factor stretch, and higher maximum angular velocities of the pelvis, shoulder, and wrist than both the IF and C groups, which showed very similar performances. These findings demonstrate that both movement outcome and form can be enhanced in complex skill learning by providing the learner with an appropriate external focus instruction. Moreover, they show that a single external focus cue can be sufficient to elicit an effective whole-body coordination pattern.

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Nigel R. Green, and Margaret E. Whitehead

sufficiency in movement patterns and the deployment of these in the context of a range of movement forms” ( Murdoch & Whitehead, 2010 , p. 181). Sometimes, the notion of a movement vocabulary is used to describe the extent of this sufficiency, however, reference to a vocabulary has proved controversial in

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Laura J. Petranek, Nicole D. Bolter, and Ken Bell

provided feedback statements that either had an internal or external attentional focus at high (100%) or low frequency (33%) rates ( Wulf et al., 2010 ). The external groups had better movement form than the internal groups by the end of acquisition. Furthermore, the External-High (Ext-High) group

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Daniel B. Robinson, Lynn Randall, and Joe Barrett

essence or defining characteristic, and each differing with respect to the physical environment in which the activity takes place and the relationships that occur (see Table  1 ). Table 1 Presentation and Description of the Various Movement Forms Movement Form Possible Examples Environment Essence