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Timothy B. Hartwig and Geraldine Naughton

Despite widespread encouragement for children to participate in sport, the efficacy of early sporting pathways remains underexplored. We compared a rotational junior-sport model combining skills from rugby, cricket, and netball with a modified games model. Motion analysis was used to quantify movement. Results revealed no differences between sporting models in relative percent time spent stationary (p = .32), walking (p = .89), jogging (p = .45), and fast running (p =.06). The rotational model had a greater number of skill-development opportunities per minute (median = 3.4) compared with the modified games model (median = 1.1, p = .001). Promising results from varied and rotational skill exposure warrant further elucidation.

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Ali Brian, Laura Bostick, Angela Starrett, Aija Klavina, Sally Taunton Miedema, Adam Pennell, Alex Stribing, Emily Gilbert, and Lauren J. Lieberman

Children with visual impairments often exhibit difficulties with locomotor skills (e.g., the ability to move one’s body from one place to another), warranting the need for ecologically valid interventions with conditions that attempt to match the real world in a variety of settings. Parents and physical education teachers are the ones choosing to provide movement opportunities for children with visual impairments and must be included in any ecologically valid intervention strategy. This was a descriptive-analytic study. To support the greatest diversity in settings, the authors recruited 94 participants (blind = 44 and low vision = 50; M age = 13.01 years, SD = 3.26) from schools for the deaf and blind in the United States (teacher led, n = 17) or Latvia (teacher led, n = 57), through an online LISTSERV throughout the United States (parent led, n = 10), and a control subgroup (n = 10). At the pretest, no participant’s motor development met age expectations. Children with visual impairments from multiple locations and cultures significantly improved compared with controls who did not. Results were most favorable when the physical educator was the interventionist. However, further research is needed to replicate these findings.

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Lina Engelen, Anita C Bundy, Jamie Lau, Geraldine Naughton, Shirley Wyver, Adrian Bauman, and Louise Baur


To promote healthy lifestyles, we need to understand more about the patterns of children’s activities after school.


Twenty 5- to 7-year-old children and their parents participated in this study. Parents used ‘real-time’ diaries to report children’s activities and contextual information at 3 randomly selected times per day, over 4 week days. Reporting was repeated after 13 weeks. Simultaneously children wore Actical accelerometers.


Approximately 300 simultaneous accelerometer measurements and diary entries were compared. Mean physical activity levels were highest when children engaged in activities generally considered as “active” and lowest for doing “nothing.” However, the range within activities was very large; some children who reported TV/screen time accumulated high accelerometry counts and conversely, some children were practically sedentary during organized sports. Children spent most (78%) of their after school time indoors, but the children were significantly more active outdoors than indoors [t(74.8) = 5.0, P < .001].


Accelerometer data in conjunction with real-time diaries provide a more complete understanding of the value of outdoor play in increasing movement opportunities for children’s after school activities.

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J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith

one time point to the next (i.e., three class movement opportunities times 53 participants). Of these movement opportunities, nearly half ( n  = 74, 46.5%) resulted in no class movement. Approximately one third of movement opportunities resulted in movement from a higher to a lower burnout class ( n

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Katie L. Hodgin, Lauren von Klinggraeff, Brian Dauenhauer, Jaimie M. McMullen, Ann Pulling Kuhn, Peter Stoepker, and Russell L. Carson

-sharing intervention, will teacher-directed movement opportunities increase for students in the classroom? (2) How will a data-sharing intervention impact student MVPA and sedentary time during class? and (3) How will teachers perceive and react to their students’ movement data? Method Participants and School Context

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Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis, and Stephen A. Butterfield

with the region’s long harsh winters limiting movement opportunities during much of the school year for some children. In this study, HLM provided a more precise explanation for changes seen across three measurement times. HLM and Other Variables The Butterfield et al. ( 2004 ) study highlighted the

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Judith Jiménez-Díaz, Karla Chaves-Castro, and Walter Salazar

interventions, PE classes, and free play were similar in that they all included movement opportunities for the participants. However, relevant differences required further analysis to assess their independent impact on MC. Table 2 Main Characteristics of Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis Study Age, y Sample

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Clarice Martins, E. Kipling Webster, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, and Amanda E. Staiano

factors may subsequently negatively impact preschoolers’ motor development. Thus, studying the motor skills of preschoolers from different income contexts, such as Brazilian and U.S ones, is especially important, as motor skills may be determined by movement opportunities ( Barnett et al., 2016 ; Draper

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Fábio Saraiva Flôres, Luis Paulo Rodrigues, and Rita Cordovil

movement opportunities for their children. The fact that the variables–factor coefficients for school are high but not perfect shows that affordances provided in the school differ from school to school, but they can also differ within the same school depending on the perception of the physical settings as

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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson, and Danielle D. Wadsworth

children not attending Head Start on both fine and gross FMS. Active Start guidelines 3 recommend that children have competency in a wide range of FMS, which increases a child’s capability to engage in diverse movement opportunities. This study’s low levels of FMS highlight a need to target these skills