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Christof A. Leicht, Nicolette C. Bishop, Thomas A.W. Paulson, Katy E. Griggs and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Purpose:

Altered autonomic innervation in tetraplegic individuals has been shown to depress certain immune parameters at rest and alter exercise-related salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses. The purpose of this study was to examine resting sIgA responses as a function of training load and episodes of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in elite tetraplegic athletes.

Methods:

Resting saliva samples were obtained from 14 tetraplegic athletes at 12 predefined time points over 5 months and analyzed for sIgA. Occurrence of self-reported URS and training load was recorded throughout the study’s duration. Regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between sIgA responses and training load. Furthermore, the relationships between sIgA responses and URS occurrence were examined.

Results:

sIgA secretion rate was negatively correlated with training load (P = .04), which only accounted for 8% of the variance. No significant relationships were found between sIgA responses and subsequent URS occurrence. Finally, sIgA responses did not differ between athletes with and without recorded URS during the study period.

Conclusions:

In line with findings in ablebodied athletes, negative relationships between sIgA secretion rate and training load were found in tetraplegic athletes. This may explain some of the higher infection risk in wheelchair athletes with a high training load, which has been previously observed in paraplegic athletes. However, the nonsignificant relationship between sIgA responses and URS occurrence brings into question the use of sIgA as a prognostic tool for the early detection of URS episodes in the studied population.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Purpose: To gain an exploratory insight into the relation between training load (TL), salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and upper respiratory tract illness (URI) in elite paratriathletes. Methods: Seven paratriathletes were recruited. Athletes provided weekly saliva samples for the measurement of sIgA over 23 consecutive weeks (February to July) and a further 11 consecutive weeks (November to January). sIgA was compared to individuals’ weekly training duration, external TL, and internal TL, using time spent in predetermined heart-rate zones. Correlations were assessed via regression analyses. URI was quantified via weekly self-report symptom questionnaire. Results: There was a significant negative relation between athletes’ individual weekly training duration and sIgA secretion rate (P = .028), with changes in training duration accounting for 12.7% of the variance (quartiles: 0.2%, 19.2%). There was, however, no significant relation between external or internal TL and sIgA parameters (P ≥ .104). There was no significant difference in sIgA when URI was present or not (101% vs 118% healthy median concentration; P ≥ .225); likewise, there was no difference in sIgA when URI occurred within 2 wk of sampling or not (83% vs 125% healthy median concentration; P ≥ .120). Conclusions: Paratriathletes’ weekly training duration significantly affects sIgA secretion rate, yet the authors did not find a relation between external or internal TL and sIgA parameters. Furthermore, it was not possible to detect any link between sIgA and URI occurrence, which throws into question the potential of using sIgA as a monitoring tool for early detection of illness.

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Yoonyoung Hwang, Jonghoon Park and Kiwon Lim

We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira

influence the mucosal immune function of the rhythmic gymnasts. As athletes will be more likely to experience periods of URTI and mucosal immune function impairment during abrupt elevated training load periods, it seems pertinent to consider weekly load within the context of recent weeks of training ( 3

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2003 ; 35 : 854 – 861 . doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000064964.80040.E9 10.1249/01.MSS.0000064964.80040.E9 12750597 25. Born DP , Zinner C , Sperlich B . The mucosal immune function is not compromised during a period of high-intensity interval training. Is it time to reconsider

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

ID: 18580401 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 18580401 23. Born DP , Zinner C , Sperlich B . The mucosal immune function is not compromised during a period of high-intensity interval training. Is it time to reconsider an old assumption? Front Physiol . 2017

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

.), Clinical manual of eating disorders (pp.  79 – 112 ). Washington, DC : American Psychiatric Publishing Inc . Shimizu , K. , Suzuki , N. , Nakamura , M. , Aizawa , K. , Imai , T. , Suzuki , S. , . . . Akama , T. ( 2012 ). Mucosal immune function comparison between amenorrheic and

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

amputees . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 23 ( 9 ), 1449 – 1457 . PubMed ID: 18410229 doi:10.1359/jbmr.080402 10.1359/jbmr.080402 Shimizu , K. , Suzuki , N. , Nakamura , M. , Aizawa , K. , Imai , T. , Suzuki , S. , … Akama , T. ( 2012 ). Mucosal immune function comparison between