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Keeron J. Stone, Jonathan L. Oliver, Michael G. Hughes, Michael R. Stembridge, Daniel J. Newcombe and Robert W. Meyers

Existing procedures for the simulation of soccer match play fail to incorporate multidirectional and repeated-sprint activities, even though these movements are considered fundamental to match play. In the current study, selected physiological and performance responses were assessed during an adapted version of an existing soccer simulation protocol. Mean heart rates of 163 ± 14 beats·min–1, mean blood lactates of 4.9 ± 2.3 mmol·L-1 and decrements in single-sprint and repeated-sprint performances were observed. The presented adaptations to an existing soccer simulation protocol better reflect the movement characteristics as well as the physiological and performance responses of soccer match play.

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Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Carlos Valero-Campo, César Berzosa, Ana Vanessa Bataller, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Gerard Moras and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva

Purpose:

To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements.

Methods:

Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6–10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test.

Results:

Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD.

Conclusions:

Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

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Sondra G. Siegel, T. Richard Nichols and Timothy C. Cope

Cutaneous reflexes have been described primarily according to their actions in the flexion/extension plane. It is shown here, by measuring electromyography and isometric force in decerebrate cats, that ankle muscles are activated in relation to their actions in the abduction/adduction plane during sural nerve (SNR) and crossed-extension (XER) reflexes. Ankle adductors (tibialis posterior, extensor digitorum longus, and flexors digitorum and hallucis longus) were active in XER, but not in SNR. Muscles producing ankle abduction (medial and lateral gastrocnemii and peroneus longus and brevis) were often activated in both reflexes, and medial gastrocnemius and peroneus longus were consistently more strongly activated in SNR than in XER. This differential pattern of muscle activation results in greater abduction torque at the ankle in SNR than in XER. These data demonstrate reflex organization in relation to the multidirectional torque generated by individual muscles.

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Matthew D. Portas, Jamie A. Harley, Christopher A. Barnes and Christopher J. Rush

Purpose:

The study aimed to analyze the validity and reliability of commercially available nondifferential Global Positioning System (NdGPS) devices for measures of total distance during linear, multidirectional and soccer-specific motion at 1-Hz and 5-Hz sampling frequencies.

Methods:

Linear (32 trials), multidirectional (192 trials) and soccer-specific courses (40 trials) were created to test the validity (mean ± 90% confidence intervals), reliability (mean ± 90% confidence intervals) and bias (mean ± 90% confidence intervals) of the NdGPS devices against measured distance. Standard error of the estimate established validity, reliability was determined using typical error and percentage bias was established.

Results:

The 1-Hz and 5-Hz data ranged from 1.3% ± 0.76 to 3.1% ± 1.37 for validity and 2.03% ± 1.31 to 5.31% ± 1.2 for reliability for measures of linear and soccer-specific motion. For multidirectional activity, data ranged from 1.8% ± 0.8 to 6.88% ± 2.99 for validity and from 3.08% ± 1.34 to 7.71% ± 1.65 for reliability. The 1-Hz underestimated some complex courses by up to 11%.

Conclusions:

1-Hz and 5-Hz NdGPS could be used to quantify distance in soccer and similar field-based team sports. Both 1-Hz and 5-Hz have a threshold beyond which reliability is compromised. 1-Hz also underestimates distance and is less valid in more complex courses.

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Lauren J. Ziaks, Tracey Freeman, Kimberly A. Wise and Suanne Maurer-Starks

Edited by Joe J. Piccininni

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Michael A. Tabor, George J. Davies, Thomas W. Kernozek, Rodney J. Negrete and Vincent Hudson

Context:

Many clinicians use functional-performance tests to determine an athlete’s readiness to resume activity; however, research demonstrating reliability of these tests is limited.

Objective:

To introduce the Lower Extremity Functional Test (LEFT) and establish it as a reliable assessment tool.

Design:

Week 1: Subjects participated in a training session. Week 2: Initial maximal-effort time measurements were recorded. Week 3: Retest time measurements were recorded.

Setting:

The University of Wisconsin–La Crosse (UW-L) and the University of Central Florida (UCF).

Subjects:

27 subjects from UW-L and 30 from UCF.

Main Outcome Measures:

Time measurements were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

Results:

ICC values of .95 and .97 were established at UW-L and UCF, respectively.

Conclusions:

The LEFT is a reliable assessment tool.

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Anamaria Laudet Silva Mangubat, Janet Hanwen Zhang, Zoe Yau-Shan Chan, Aislinn Joan MacPhail, Ivan Pui-Hung Au and Roy Tsz-Hei Cheung

A stable gaze is necessary to optimize visual conditions during running. Head accelerations generally remain stable when looking in front; however, it is unclear if this response is similar when the head is turned sideways, and whether other adaptive strategies are present to maintain this stability. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether runners maintained stable head accelerations while gazing at fixed targets in front and to their sides. The authors collected biomechanical data from 13 runners as they directed their gaze to visual targets located in front, 45°, and 90° to the sides at a random sequence. Vertical head and tibial accelerations were the primary outcome measures, while vertical loading rate, footstrike angle, contact time, stride length, and stride rate were the secondary measures. A reduction in vertical head accelerations was found in the rightmost direction (P = .04), while an increase in vertical tibial accelerations was found on the same direction (P = .02). No other significant differences were observed for the other variables. The results of this study suggest that the tibia accommodated the increased shock to maintain head stability.

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T. Adam Thrasher, Vivian W. Sin, Kei Masani, Albert H. Vette, B. Cathy Craven and Milos R. Popovic

Understanding how the human body responds to unexpected force perturbations during quiet sitting is important to the science of motor behavior and the design of neuroprostheses for sitting posture. In this study, the performance characteristics of the neck and trunk in healthy individuals were assessed by measuring the kinematic responses to sudden, unexpected force perturbations applied to the thorax. Perturbations were applied in eight horizontal directions. It was hypothesized that displacement of the trunk, settling time and steady-state error would increase when the perturbation direction was diagonal (i.e., anterior-lateral or posterior-lateral) due to the increased complexity of asymmetrical muscle responses. Perturbation forces were applied manually. The neck and trunk responded in a synchronized manner in which all joints achieved peak displacement simultaneously then returned directly to equilibrium. Displacement in the direction of perturbation and perpendicular to the direction of perturbation were both significantly greater in response to diagonal perturbations (p < .001). The center of mass returned to equilibrium in 3.64 ± 1.42 s after the onset of perturbation. Our results suggest that the trunk sometimes behaves like an underdamped oscillator and is not controlled by simple stiffness when subjected to loads of approximately 200 N. The results of this study are intended to be used to develop a neuroprosthesis for artificial control of trunk stability in individuals with spinal cord injury.

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Kimberly Somers, Dustin Aune, Anthony Horten, James Kim and Julia Rogers

study is to investigate potential comparable effects between multidirectional self-myofascial release using a foam roller (FR), multiplanar dynamic stretch performed in the yoga pose downward dog (DD), as well as to investigate a combination of both techniques (CT) on closed-chain ankle DF ROM. Although

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David Rowe and Callum Gilmour

Contemporary media sports culture is dominated by the West, and media sport studies has tended to focus on Western contexts. The Asia Pacific region is now a more significant feature of the global media sports cultural complex, however, through the increasingly lucrative export of Western sport television rights and merchandising, the staging of megamedia sports events in the region, the conspicuous role of sport stars from the Asia Pacific in Western sport competitions, and, in some cases, even a shift in the balance of institutional and economic power from West to East. Drawing mainly on the cases of association football (soccer), cricket, and basketball, this article identifies the complex and multidirectional flows of labor, capital, images, identities, and audiences into, from, and within the Asian media sports environment. It considers whether such developments might constitute de-, re-, or even post-Westernization and proposes the necessity of closer attention to these issues in critical media sport studies.