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The Strength of the Situation: Disentangling the Situational Explanation for Effort Gains in Swimming Relays From Person-Related Accounts

Joachim Hüffmeier, Joyce Elena Schleu, and Christoph Nohe

only one data set per swimmer, to a within-person approach, using multiple data sets per swimmer. This approach, together with multilevel modeling ( Preacher, Zyphur, & Zhang, 2010 ; Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002 ), allows for controlling between-person variance and, thereby, disentangles the dominant

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Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Among Adolescent Athletes: A Bayesian Multilevel Model Predicting Sport Enjoyment and Commitment

Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen, and Peter R.E. Crocker

Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.

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“The Thrill of Victory . . . and the Agony of Defeat”: Passion and Emotional Reactions to Success and Failure Among Recreational Golfers

Jérémie Verner-Filion, Benjamin J. I. Schellenberg, Maylys Rapaport, Jocelyn J. Bélanger, and Robert J. Vallerand

multilevel modeling with HLM 6.0 ( Raudenbush, Bryk, & Congdon, 2004 ) given that the repeated assessments of emotions (i.e., emotions after both successes and failures) were nested under participants’ dispositional passion measures (i.e., HP and OP). This allowed us to examine within- and between

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Experienced and Anticipated Pride and Shame as Predictors of Goal-Directed Behavior

Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy, and Catherine M. Sabiston

ranging from 1 ( none ) to 7 ( as much as I could ). Data Analyses Descriptive statistics and correlations were calculated and are available in the Supplementary Table 1 [available online]. Multilevel models were used to accommodate the nested nature of the data (weeks nested within people; Snijders

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Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Attachment, Need Satisfaction, and Well-Being in a Sample of Athletes: A Longitudinal Study

Luke Felton and Sophia Jowett

The current study aimed to examine whether (a) mean differences and changes in athletes’ attachment style predicted psychological need satisfaction within two diverse relational contexts (coach and parent) and well-being, and (b) mean differences and changes in need satisfaction within the two relational contexts predicted well-being. One hundred and ten athletes aged between 15 and 32 years old completed a multisection questionnaire at three time points over a span of 6 months to assess the main study variables. Multilevel modeling revealed that insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted well-being outcomes at the within- and between-person levels. Avoidant attachment predicted need satisfaction within the parent relational context at both levels, and need satisfaction within the coach relational context at the between-person level. Need satisfaction within both relational contexts predicted various well-being outcomes at the between-person level, while need satisfaction within the parent relational context predicted vitality at the within-person level.

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“Fuelled by Passion”: Obsessive Passion Amplifies Positive and Negative Feelings Throughout a Hockey Playoff Series

Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg and Jérémie Verner-Filion

International, Skokie, IL; Raudenbush et al., 2019 ) to conduct multilevel modeling. We removed one participant who had an extreme OP score from the analysis, as well as the responses of two participants’ postgame surveys because they indicated that they did not answer the survey questions honestly. Game

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Perfectionism and Precompetition Emotions in Youth Footballers: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Test of the Mediating Role of Perfectionistic Cognitions

Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

of multilevel modeling is the capacity to provide quantification and prediction of random variance due to multiple sampling dimensions (e.g., across competitions, across persons; Hoffman & Stawski, 2009 ). Robust Maximum Likelihood in Mplus 7.0 ( Muthén & Muthén, 1998−2012 ) was used to test the

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Correlates of Physical Activity Among People With Disabilities in South Korea: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

Youngdeok Kim, Jaehoon Cho, Dana K Fuller, and Minsoo Kang


The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of physical activity (PA) with personal and environmental factors among people with disabilities in South Korea.


Data from the 2011 National Survey for Physical Activity and Exercise for the Disabled, conducted by Korea Sports Association for the Disabled, was used (n = 1478). The personal characteristics (age, gender, occupation, types of disabilities, family income) and the numbers of public PA-related facilities (welfare center, public indoor gym, and public outdoor facilities) and social sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities across 16 local areas were also obtained. Hierarchical generalized linear model was used to examine subjectively measured PA in relation to personal and environmental factors.


The likelihood of engaging in PA was significantly lower for women with disabilities. People with hearing and intellectual disabilities were less likely to engage in PA compared with those with physical disabilities. The availability of sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities was the only environmental factor that was significantly associated with PA.


These findings suggest the need of systematic intervention strategies based upon personal characteristics of people with disabilities. Further public efforts to promote sports/exercise club activities should be encouraged in this population.

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Who Are the Champions? Using a Multilevel Model to Examine Perceptions of Employee Support for LGBT Inclusion in Sport Organizations

E. Nicole Melton and George B. Cunningham

Sport employees who champion LGBT inclusion efforts represent key elements in creating accepting environments within college athletic departments. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the concept of champions and how they support LGBT individuals within heterosexist sport environments. Drawing from divergent literatures, including that related to organizational inclusion and championing behaviors, we explore how a combination of factors from multiple levels may influence sport employees’ attitude and behaviors related to LGBT inclusion, and determine how supportive behaviors influence sexual minorities working within a college athletic department. Results indicate that various macro- (i.e., culture of sport, athletic boosters, university and community values, exposure to diverse cultures) meso- (organizational culture, presence of other champions), and micro- (demographics, open-mindedness, experiences with sexual minorities) level factors influenced the level of employee support for LGBT inclusive policies. Furthermore, power meaningfully influenced these dynamics, such that employees who did not resemble prototypically sport employees (i.e., White, heterosexual, male) were hesitant to show support for LGBT equality. However, those who did champion LGBT inclusive initiatives successfully modeled supportive behaviors and positive attitudes toward LGBT individuals, vocally opposed discriminatory treatment, and provided sexual minorities with a safe space within sport. The authors discuss implications and future directions.

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Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults

Christine B. Phillips, Jerri D. Edwards, Ross Andel, and Marcus Kilpatrick

Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants’ daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0–24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults’ ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.