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James W. Adie, Joan L. Duda, and Nikos Ntoumanis

Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), the purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationships between achievement goals, competition appraisals and indices of psychological and emotional welfare among elite adolescent soccer players. A subsidiary aim was to ascertain the mediational role of competition appraisals in explaining the potential achievement goal and well-/ill-being relationships. Ninety-one boys (mean age = 13.82 years) involved in an elite soccer program completed multisection questionnaires capturing the targeted variables. Measures were obtained on five occasions across two competitive seasons. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that MAp goals positively, and MAv goals negatively, predicted within-person changes in well-being over two seasons. PAp goal adoption was positively associated to within-person changes in negative affect. PAv goals corresponded negatively to between-person mean differences in positive affect. The results of the indirect effects showed challenge appraisals accounted for within-person associations between a MAp goal focus and well- and ill-being over time. The present findings provide only partial support for the utility of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework in predicting young athletes’ psychological and emotional functioning in an elite youth sport setting.

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Svenja A. Wolf, Mark A. Eys, Pamela Sadler, and Jens Kleinert

Athletes’ precompetitive appraisal is important because it determines emotions, which may impact performance. When part of a team, athletes perform their appraisal within a social context, and in this study we examined whether perceived team cohesion, as a characteristic of this context, related to appraisal. We asked 386 male and female intercollegiate team-sport athletes to respond to measures of cohesion and precompetitive appraisal before an in-season game. For males and females, across all teams, (a) an appraisal of increased competition importance was predicted by perceptions of higher task cohesion (individual level), better previous team performance, and a weaker opponent (team level) and (b) an appraisal of more positive prospects for coping with competitive demands was predicted by higher individual attractions to the group (individual level). Consequently, athletes who perceive their team as more cohesive likely appraise the pending competition as a challenge, which would benefit both emotions and performance.

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Lambros Stefanou, Niki Tsangaridou, Charalambos Y. Charalambous, and Leonidas Kyriakides

, multicollinearity and singularity, linearity, homoscedasticity, normality, and independence of residuals, see Cohen et al., 2003 ) was tested; the emergent model violated none of these assumptions. Multilevel regression analysis To further examine the contribution of the PD program to students’ achievement in

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Rafael E.A. Muchaxo, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Thomas W.J. Janssen, and Carla Nooijen

). Table  2 displays the multilevel regression results showing differences in average time-trial velocity between handcycling classes. Variables socioeconomic development and athlete’s participation were not significantly related to average velocity and therefore not included in our models. Comparisons

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Joanne R. Welsman and Neil Armstrong

This paper reviews some of the statistical methods available for controlling for body size differences in the interpretation of developmental changes in exercise performance. For cross-sectional data analysis simple per body mass ratio scaling continues to be widely used, but is frequently ineffective as the computed ratio remains correlated with body mass. Linear regression techniques may distinguish group differences more appropriately but, as illustrated, only allometric (log-linear regression) scaling appropriately removes body size differences while accommodating the heteroscedasticity common in exercise performance data. The analysis and interpretation of longitudinal data within an allometric framework is complex. More established methods such as ontogenetic allometry allow insights into individual size-function relationships but are unable to describe adequately population effects or changes in the magnitude of the response. The recently developed multilevel regression modeling technique represents a flexible and sensitive solution to such problems allowing both individual and group responses to be modeled concurrently.

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Janelle Armstrong-Brown, Eugenia Eng, Wizdom Powell Hammond, Catherine Zimmer, and J. Michael Bowling

Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants’ physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.

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Jooyeon Jin and Joonkoo Yun

The purpose of this study was to examine three frameworks, (a) process-product, (b) student mediation, and (c) classroom ecology, to understand physical activity (PA) behavior of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school inclusive physical education (PE). A total of 13 physical educators teaching inclusive PE and their 503 students, including 22 students with different disabilities, participated in this study. A series of multilevel regression analyses indicated that physical educators’ teaching behavior and students’ implementation intentions play important roles in promoting the students’ PA in middle school inclusive PE settings when gender, disability, lesson content, instructional model, and class location are considered simultaneously. The findings suggest that the ecological framework should be considered to effectively promote PA of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school PE classes.

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Christoph Breuer, Svenja Feiler, and Lea Rossi

Coaches play a vital role in providing sports programs. Investing in formal coach education can serve to increase coaches’ human capital, which in turn, has a positive effect on their coaching practice. The present study investigates factors influencing coaches’ intention to get training for their coaching activity on an individual and organizational level. Nationwide online surveys were conducted in Germany on both nonprofit sports clubs and coaches being active within these clubs. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analysis on a sample of n = 2,384 coaches in n = 1,274 clubs. Results show that especially the expiring validity of the coaching license, aspects of personal development, and low transaction costs are crucial factors for the intention to obtain a qualification. The results lead to several implications for theory and practice. Clubs could enhance the qualification intention and, thereby, the quality of sports programs by appointing a contact person who informs about qualification possibilities.

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Julie Doron and Patrick Gaudreau

This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.

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Leigh F. Callahan, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Jack Shreffler, Jennifer M. Hootman, Thelma J. Mielenz, Britta Schoster, Teresa Brady, and Todd Schwartz

Background:

Adults with arthritis can benefit from participation in physical activity and may be assisted by organized programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 20-week behavioral lifestyle intervention, Active Living Every Day (ALED), for improvements in primary outcomes (physical activity levels, aerobic endurance, function, symptoms).

Methods:

A 20-week randomized controlled community trial was conducted in 354 adults. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks in the intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group was also assessed at 6 and 12 months. Mean outcomes were determined by multilevel regression models in the intervention and control groups at follow-up points.

Results:

At 20 weeks, the intervention group significantly increased participation in physical activity, and improved aerobic endurance, and select measures of function while pain, fatigue and stiffness remained status quo. In the intervention group, significant improvements in physical activity at 20 weeks were maintained at 6 and 12 months, and stiffness decreased.

Conclusions:

ALED appears to improve participation in physical activity, aerobic endurance, and function without exacerbating disease symptoms in adults with arthritis.