, after giving an overview of research on ST in sport, we have offered a number of recommendations to practitioners. At the individual level, efforts to prevent the effect of ST include leveraging the complexity of athletes’ multiple social identities, trying alternative approaches to skill learning, and
Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny
Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet and Benoit Louvet
have multiple social identities associated with the multiple different group memberships ( Haslam, 2004 ; Mackie & Smith, 1998 ; Tajfel, 1978 ; Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987 ). More specifically, according to social identity approach ( Haslam, 2004 ; see also Turner et al., 1987
E. Nicole Melton and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to explore the work experiences of sport employees who are LGBT, and examine how these individuals negotiate their multiple social identities in a sport context. Considering the growing interest in sport, and sport management in particular, it is important for scholars to gain of better understanding of why people choose to work in the sport industry, and understand how employee identity may influence career decisions and subsequent work experiences. Thus, the researchers only interviewed employees who did not fulfill coaching or player roles, as these individuals could potentially work in other industries. Analysis of the data revealed how working in a sport context may present sexual minorities with certain advantages, such as an opportunity to enhance self-esteem and gain social acceptance. When confronted with unjust treatment because of their sexual orientation, employees used coworker social support and social mobility techniques to cope with these negative situations. Although the employees did not always view their sexual orientation as salient to their identity, they had all disclosed their sexual orientation, to varying degrees, to others in the workplace. Finally, though the participants did not engage in social change activities, some of their supportive coworkers attempted to proactively create a more inclusive work environment. Implications of these findings are discussed and practical suggestions are provided.
Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito
their multiple social identities as contextual while recognizing interwoven forms of subjugation and subordination ( Cole, 2009 ). As the participants “enacted whiteness,” they presented numerous interlocking social identities located within a framework of normalized and desired whiteness, thus