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Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr

difficulties. Figure 1 —Schematic diagram of the intervention and testing schedule. TT test 1: multiplication test for TT 3 and 9 in term 1; TT test 2: multiplication test for TT 4 and 8 in term 2. All postintervention tests for term 1 served as preintervention tests for term 2, except for the TT tests that

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Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana

(L)] that are associated with 100-m breaststroke speed performance, we adopted the proportional multiplicative model with allometric body size components, similar to the 100-m personal best front crawl swim model used to measure speeds in children and adolescents ( 37 ) and to the 100-m butterfly

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

multiplicative, allometric modeling to pediatric sport science and demonstrated age and—in boys but not girls—maturity status effects on peak V ˙ O 2 that were additional to those due to changes in body size. Unfortunately, issues related to selection and retention in elite youth sports and participation in

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David A. Dzewaltowski

This study compared the ability of Bandura's social cognitive theory and Fish-bein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predict exercise behavior. The theories' constructs were assessed and then the exercise behaviors of 328 individuals were recorded for the following 7 weeks. A path analysis indicated that the theory of reasoned action model fit the data, but explained only 5 % of the exercise behavior variance. Two social cognitive theory variables, self-efficacy and self-evaluated dissatisfaction, significantly predicted exercise behavior. Also, a multiplicative function of self-evaluated dissatisfaction and outcome expectations increased the amount of predicted exercise behavior variance to 16%. Thus, individuals who were confident they could adhere to an exercise program and were satisfied with their standing on probable outcomes from participation (e.g., present body weight) exercised more days per week. A commonality analysis indicated that the theory of reasoned action did not account for any unique variance in exercise behavior over the social cognitive theory constructs. In sum, social cognitive theory was more effective than the theory of reasoned action in predicting exercise behavior.

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David R. Mullineaux, Hilary M. Clayton and Lauren M. Gnagey

This study assessed the effect of offset normalizations on variability in kinematic data. The tarsal angles for 12 elderly horses, with mild lameness of the tarsal joint, were measured at the trot pre and post 2 weeks administration of a dietary supplement intended to promote joint health (Corta-Flx, Nature's Own, Aiken, SC). For five strides, pre- and postsupplement, the tarsal angles measured on the flexor side (full exten. = 180°) were smoothed, normalized to 101 data points, and averaged. Four offset normalizations were applied: minus standing tarsal angle (Tarsal); minus impact angle (Impact); minus mean angle (Average); multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). For 11 angle variables across the stride there were no significant differences pre- and postsupplement, p > 0.05. Normalization had no effect on the timing of variables or magnitude of angles, but generally the variability in the angles was reduced. Least to greatest reduction occurred with the Tarsal, Impact, Average, then MSC normalizations. The Average and MSC techniques resulted in two and three variables, respectively, becoming significantly different. These differences were small, emphasizing that significant findings should be interpreted for meaningfulness. Normalizations based on the data gave the largest reductions in variability, but these may introduce biases into the data. Thus, normalization with respect to measurements external to data capture may be preferable, but their theoretical and statistical relationship to the kinematic variables should be confirmed. MSC altered the shape of the kinematic trace, which may be misleading. Offset normalizations should be used with care, but they can reduce variability in kinematic data to increase statistical power in biomechanical studies.

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Job Fransen, Adam Baxter-Jones and Stephen Woodcock

as both a predictor and response variable, 2) a multilevel modeling approach would have been more appropriate given the structure of our dataset, 3) multiplicative allometric models rather than polynomials would improve the model fit, and 4) a simplified model could be developed that appears to be

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

recent longitudinal studies using multiplicative, multilevel modeling are providing remarkably consistent insights into sex-specific developmental changes in both peak aerobic and short-term power, whether determined during treadmill running or cycle ergometry ( 1 – 3 ). In all of these analyses, it is

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Alan Nevill and Richard F. Burton

observational units associated with these data, as recommended and adopted by Baxter-Jones et al ( 1 ) and Nevill et al ( 8 ). Finally, the use of multiplicative allometric models (log-linear) rather than additive polynomials would almost certainly improve the fit and overcome the obvious heteroscedastic errors

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Sandie Beaudouin

nautiques, elle ne la détermine pas pour autant. Les communes de Nogent-sur-Marne et Joinville-le-Pont présentent un cadre original. Il se forme sur les bords de Marne un foyer nautique et la multiplication des sociétés nautiques à partir des années 1870 en est la plus forte expression. Dans le reste de l

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Chantal A. Vella, Erin D. Michos, Dorothy D. Sears, Mary Cushman, Rachel B. Van Hollebeke, Michelle M. Wiest and Matthew A. Allison

inflection point and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as the point at which the effect of sedentary behavior on muscle density switches from positive to negative. Multiplicative interactions between sedentary behavior and race/ethnicity, sex, and age for the different muscle groups were assessed