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Kirsten Tulchin, Michael Orendurff, Stephen Adolfsen and Lori Karol

Multisegment foot models provide researchers more-detailed information regarding foot mechanics compared with single rigid body foot models. Previous work has shown that walking speed significantly affects sagittal plane ankle motion. It is important to distinguish changes in intersegment foot mechanics following treatment that are due to clinical intervention versus those due to walking speed alone. Foot and ankle kinematics were collected on 24 adults walking at 5 speeds. Significant differences were seen at the ankle using a single rigid body foot model, as well as at the hindfoot and forefoot using a multisegment foot model, with all motions exhibiting a shift toward plantar flexion and decreased stance time with increasing speed. When evaluating foot mechanics using a multisegment foot model across groups or conducting intrasubject comparison over time/treatments, it is imperative that walking speed be accounted for or controlled.

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J. Sinclair, J. Isherwood and P.J. Taylor

Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s−1 with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot.

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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck

The implementation of multisegment foot modeling approaches has advanced understanding of foot function during healthy and pathological gait. Specifically, multisegment foot modeling approaches have helped characterize midfoot function and direct clinical care for conditions that affect the midfoot

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Douglas W. Powell, Benjamin Long, Clare E. Milner and Songning Zhang

The medial longitudinal arch plays a major role in determining lower extremity kinematics. Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of the arch structure in response to load. The purpose of this study was to examine arch function in high- and low-arched feet during a vertical loading condition. Ten high- and ten low-arched females performed five trials in a sit-to-stand exercise. Ground reaction force (1200 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (240 Hz) were collected simultaneously. The high-and low-arched athletes had no differences in vertical deformation of the arch. High-arched participants were less everted than the low-arched athletes; furthermore, the high-arched athletes had smaller mid-forefoot eversion excursions. Differences between the high-arched and low-arched athletes occur through and motion at the mid-forefoot joint.

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Wataru Kawakami, Makoto Takahashi, Yoshitaka Iwamoto and Koichi Shinakoda

behavior of the foot affected by hallux valgus remains poorly understood. Recently, several multisegment foot models have been proposed to describe detailed foot motion. These models could provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating foot problems using clinical gait analysis. 14 Several

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni

metatarsophalangeal joint angles and moments. Kinematics of the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joint have been examined using multisegment foot models, and it has been reported that, at 50% of the gait cycle the ankle joint is at peak dorsiflexion, with the metatarsophalangeal angle then moving to approximately 27° of

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Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Matricali, Maarten Eerdekens, Sander Wuite, Alberto Leardini and Filip Staes

, which were low-pass filtered at a 50-Hz cutoff. Multisegment foot kinematics were obtained by placing 34 retroreflective markers on both feet and shanks according to the Rizzoli Foot Model. 28 Following marker placement, a static trial in upright posture was recorded. The participants were then asked

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Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski

attention regarding midfoot region power generation. 2 – 4 The application of multisegment foot modeling to measure midfoot region power has accelerated since its inception. 5 Although different approaches have been used, midfoot power generation during the push-off phase of gait can now be considered as