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Stefanie Klatt and Nicholas J. Smeeton

considered each sensory modality in isolation. However, there are a number of real-life situations, such as in team sports (open-skill sports), where decisions are made in the presence of multisensory information (e.g.,  Gray, 2008 ). In general, multisensory integration (also known as multimodal sensory

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills

Multifractal analyses have been used in recent years as a way of studying balance, with the goal of understanding the patterns of movement of the center of pressure at different spatial scales. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to compare obese and nonobese children to investigate the cause of previously demonstrated deficiencies in balance for obese children. Twenty-two children (11 obese and 11 nonobese), aged 8–15 years, performed 30-s trials of bilateral static balance on a plantar pressure distribution measuring device. Both the obese and nonobese groups demonstrated greater persistence for small fluctuations, but the effect was greater in the obese group. This was particularly evident with the eyes closed, where significant differences between the obese and nonobese were observed for small fluctuations. These results demonstrate that balance deficiencies in obese children may be the result of decreased proprioceptive abilities in obese children.

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Fabien Cignetti, Sébastien Caudron, Marianne Vaugoyeau and Christine Assaiante

There is evidence that adolescence is a critical period in development, most likely involving important modifications of the body schema and of the sensorimotor representations. The present study addressed this issue, by investigating the differences between adolescents and adults regarding the integration of proprioceptive information at both perceptual and postural levels and the visual recognition of human movement. Proprioceptive integration was examined using muscle-tendon vibration that evoked either a postural response or an illusory sensation of movement. The ability to recognize human movement was investigated from a paradigm where the participants had to discern between human movements performed with and without gravity. The study produced three main findings. First, the adolescents had larger postural responses to tendon vibrations than the adults, with visual information enabling them to reduce this exaggerated postural reaction. Second, the adolescents had a greater illusory perception of movement compared with the adults. Third, the adolescents had the same perceptual ability as adults in the human movement perception task. In conclusion, we were able to highlight notable differences between adolescents and young adults, which confirms the late maturation of multisensory integration for postural control and the privileged visual contribution to postural control.

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Carly C. Sacco, Erin M. Gaffney and Jesse C. Dean

.2519/jospt.1999.29.12.718 10.2519/jospt.1999.29.12.718 6. Green AM , Angelaki DE . Multisensory integration: resolving sensory ambiguities to build novel representations . Curr Opin Neurobiol . 2010 ; 20 : 353 – 360 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.conb.2010.04.009 10.1016/j.conb.2010.04.009 20471245 7. Horak FB

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Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Jose L. Bermejo, Sergio Gandia, Julien Maitre, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Isaac Estevan and Xavier Garcia-Masso

been used to characterize multisensory integration in postural control and spatial orientation ( Jeka, Oie, & Kiemel, 2000 ; Mahboobin, Loughlin, Redfern, & Sparto, 2005 ; Oie, Kiemel, & Jeka, 2002 ; Peterka & Loughlin, 2004 ; van der Kooij, Jacobs, Koopman, & van der Helm, 2001 ). Some authors

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin and Ken Perlin

not reweight a visual stimulus with increased frequency. These studies and others ( Logan, Kiemel, & Jeka, 2014 ; Polastri & Barela, 2013 ) were designed to study multisensory integration across the lifespan and with disease. They also provide a paradigm to study the effect of environmental changes

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

addition, multisensory integration occurring through distributed cerebral networks (cortical and subcortical) underpins human movement perception ( Kavounoudias et al., 2008 ). With respect to foot contact with a support surface, the shape, depth, and alignment of the foot provide valuable information