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Jereme B. Outerleys, Michael J. Dunbar, Glen Richardson, Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey, and Janie L. Astephen Wilson

Only PCs that showed significant group differences based on 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were retained for multivariate analyses ( α  = .05). A linear discriminant model was defined to separate the asymptomatic and pre-TKA knee biomechanics patterns. A stepwise procedure that successively

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Terry R. Haggerty and Denise Denomme

Multivariate analyses of responses from 327 undergraduate student members of 17 university recreational sport clubs indicated that eight variables jointly explained 35.3% of the variance in members’ organizational commitment. They were (a) the importance of management related items, (b) the emphasis the club placed on delivering its service, (c) the lack of emphasis the club placed on status related items, (d) the emphasis the club placed on social aspects, (e) members’ current involvement in physical activity, (f) reduced travel time to club gatherings, (g) increased preparation time for club activities, and (h) gender, with males expressing more commitment than females. The study concluded that management related factors were among the most important aspects in affecting member commitment in sport clubs. Implications for practicing managers and researchers were addressed.

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Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin

This research studied stacking—position segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports—in the 1992 Major League Baseball season using a multivariate analysis, with control variables of height, weight, age, power, speed, and skill. The strong relationship between race and centrality found in previous studies was confirmed; African-American players were predominantly in the outfield positions, Latino players in the middle infield positions, and white players in the most central position of catcher, as well as the other infield positions. The multiple regression analyses revealed direct effects of some control variables on centrality; however, only the variable of speed was found significantly to reduce the bivariate relationship between being African-Americans and centrality. A proportion of the variance in allocation of African-Americans to the outfield may thus be due to this job-related ability; the residual race effects, which account for the majority of the explained variance, must at present still be attributed to direct discrimination.

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José M. Saavedra, Yolanda Escalante, and Ferran A. Rodríguez

This study develops multivariate models to predict swimming performance based on multidimensional assessment. 66 male (age 13.6 ± 0.6 y) and 67 female (11.5 ± 0.6 y) swimmers undertook a test battery including a sports background and training questionnaire, anthropometry, general and specific fitness tests, and technique. Competitive performance (LEN scores in three best events) was the predicted variable. A multiple linear regression model explained 82.4% of performance variability in males (based on age, sitting height, 30-min test, 6 × 50 m at 1:30, and swimming index) and 84.5% in females (age, 30-min test, 6 × 50 m at 1:30, and velocity at 50 m). Discriminant analysis using a four-group split-sample approach correctly classified 94.1% of the best male swimmers (based on age, 30-min test, 6 × 50 m at 1:30, shoulder extension, arm span, and height), and 71.0% of the best females swimmers (30-min test, horizontal floating, velocity at 50 m, and age). Chronological age was the main predictor of performance in this age category. Main predictive variables pertained to the anthropometric (particularly in males), specific fitness (aerobic speed and endurance), and technical domains (particularly in females). In these ages competitions should be organized according to year of birth and not by age categories.

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Koren L. Fisher, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Joshua A. Lawson, Bruce A. Reeder, Nigel L. Ashworth, M. Suzanne Sheppard, and Karen E. Chad

approach, the purpose of this study was to explore the multivariate relationships between PA and personal, social, and environmental factors in community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older. The results of this research will assist PA programmers and policy makers to foster healthy active living among

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Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L.J. Bilzon, Marco Cardinale, and Aki I.T. Salo


An extensive battery of physical tests is typically employed to evaluate athletic status and/or development, often resulting in a multitude of output variables. The authors aimed to identify independent physical predictors of elite skeleton start performance to overcome the general problem of practitioners employing multiple tests with little knowledge of their predictive utility.


Multiple 2-d testing sessions were undertaken by 13 high-level skeleton athletes across a 24-wk training season and consisted of flexibility, dry-land push-track, sprint, countermovement-jump, and leg-press tests. To reduce the large number of output variables to independent factors, principal-component analysis (PCA) was conducted. The variable most strongly correlated to each component was entered into a stepwise multiple-regression analysis, and K-fold validation assessed model stability.


PCA revealed 3 components underlying the physical variables: sprint ability, lower-limb power, and strength–power characteristics. Three variables that represented these components (unresisted 15-m sprint time, 0-kg jump height, and leg-press force at peak power, respectively) significantly contributed (P < .01) to the prediction (R 2 = .86, 1.52% standard error of estimate) of start performance (15-m sled velocity). Finally, the K-fold validation revealed the model to be stable (predicted vs actual R 2 = .77; 1.97% standard error of estimate).


Only 3 physical-test scores were needed to obtain a valid and stable prediction of skeleton start ability. This method of isolating independent physical variables underlying performance could improve the validity and efficiency of athlete monitoring, potentially benefitting sport scientists, coaches, and athletes alike.

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Joric B. Vandendriessche, Barbara Vandorpe, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir, Johan Lefevre, and Renaat M. Philippaerts

Discussions of growth and motor performance of children are often set in the context of physical fitness. Although there is a clear theoretical concept or definition of fitness comprising motor coordination, the latter is not systematically considered. This study determined to what extent the variance in motor coordination might be explained by morphological and fitness characteristics. To postulate understanding of this association during childhood, 613 boys aged 7–11 years completed the morphological measurements, the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and different fitness tests. The results demonstrated a substantial interrelationship among morphology, fitness and motor coordination in elementary school boys. The magnitude of explained variance and the loadings of the canonical correlation between the several constructs are strongly pronounced during childhood indicating that these constructs should be well considered given their contribution to a child’s general development.

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Timothy I. McCutcheon, James E. Curtis, and Philip G. White

This paper reports on the distribution by socioeconomic status (SES) of injuries from sport and physical activities for each gender using data from a national sample of adult Canadians. The results show weak positive relationships between SES (various measures) and sport injury before controls for both genders, and that men are more likely to experience sports injuries than women. Workplace physical activity is negatively related to SES and negatively related to sport injury. Also, duration and intensity of sport and physical activities are positively related to SES and positively related to sport injuries. The effects of these intervening variables help account for the positive relationships of SES and sport injuries.

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Philip White and William McTeer

This study examines the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and sport and physical activity involvement at different stages of childhood and adolescence in Canada. From the previous literature on SES and health-related behavior, there was reason to test competing hypotheses on the direction of the predicted relationship. The data employed in our analyses came from Cycle 3 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth—1998–1999. Results, after controls, showed that SES was a significant predictor of sport involvement among 6–9 year-olds, but not for 10–15 year-olds. In the younger group, the higher the family SES the more frequent was the involvement. The effects of SES were much stronger for organized sport involvement than for participation in an informal context. The discussion bears on the implications of these findings for later adult physical activity and sport involvement and their ramifications for sport and exercise promotion policy.

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Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, and Kathryn L. Gwizdala

infants with and without DS, we used a two-step process involving a two-level (individual nested and time nested) multivariate mixed model with the dependent variables such as PA, gross motor skills, and fine motor skills followed by post hoc pick-a-point t tests. We used a multivariate mixed model to