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Mark A. Feger, Luke Donovan, C. Collin Herb, Geoffrey G. Handsfield, Silvia S. Blemker, Joseph M. Hart, Susan A. Saliba, Mark F. Abel, Joseph S. Park and Jay Hertel

related to muscle hypertrophy. Determining if hypertrophy occurs after rehabilitation and if it may be responsible for increases in measured force will allow for more informed decisions regarding the prescription of therapeutic exercise for the treatment of LAS and CAI. Analyzing muscle morphological

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Aliza K. Nedimyer, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey and Erik A. Wikstrom

Key Points ▸ History of exercise-related lower leg pain increases reliance on vision during stance. ▸ History of exercise-related lower leg pain decreases intrinsic foot muscle morphology. ▸ Increased visual reliance is positively associated with decreased muscle morphology. Running has numerous

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Diego Alonso-Fernandez, Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias, Tania García-Remeseiro and Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez

, Wirth O , Baker BA . Volitional weight-lifting in rats promotes adaptation via performance and muscle morphology prior to gains in muscle mass . J Environ Health Insigths . 2014 ; 8 ( suppl 1 ): 1 – 9 . 14. Lieber RL , Ward SR . Skeletal muscle design to meet functional demands . Philos

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Camila Ximenes Santos, Natália Barros Beltrão, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, David Behm and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

Context: Although stretching exercises are commonly used in clinical and athletic practice, there is a lack of evidence regarding the methodological variables that guide the prescription of stretching programs, such as intensity. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of different stretching intensities on the range of motion (ROM), passive torque, and muscle architecture. Design: Two-group pretest–posttest design. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Twenty untrained men were allocated into the low- or high-intensity group. Main Outcome Measures: Subjects were evaluated for initial (ROMinitial) and maximum (ROMmax) discomfort angle, stiffness, viscoelastic stress relaxation, muscle fascicle length, and pennation angle. Results: The ROM assessments showed significant changes, in both groups, in the preintervention and postintervention measures both for the ROMinitial (P < .01) and ROMmax angle (P = .02). There were no significant differences for stiffness and viscoelastic stress relaxation variables. The pennation angle and muscle fascicle length were different between the groups, but there was no significant interaction. Conclusion: Performing stretching exercises at high or low intensity acutely promotes similar gains in flexibility, that is, there are short-term/immediate gains in ROM but does not modify passive torque and muscle architecture.

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John M. Radnor, Jon L. Oliver, Charlotte M. Waugh, Gregory D. Myer and Rhodri S. Lloyd

changes in muscle morphology, and that maturation may trigger architectural adaptations within the GM and VL muscles that are likely to facilitate greater force production and rate of force development. This study establishes maturity-related changes in muscle architecture variables, which provides

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Jennifer M. Dent, Cameron J.R. Blimkie, Colin E. Webber, Angus B. McMillan and Rhona M. Hanning

Absolute total body (TB) and regional spine (RS) bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry were lower (p < .05) in Turner syndrome (TS) girls compared to a cohort of younger (by 2 years) but taller and heavier prepubertal girls. Maximal voluntary strength (MVC) of the elbow flexors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors were also consistently and, in most cases, significantly lower in TS girls. Differences between groups in absolute bone mineral and muscle strength disappeared, however, when normalized for skeletal cross-sectional area (areal density) and for the product of muscle cross-sectional area and estimated moment arm, respectively. Maximal voluntary strength and body mass correlated moderately strongly with the bone mineral measures, but only body mass contributed significantly to the variance in total body and regional spine bone mineral measures. Bone mineral and muscle strength appear appropriate for body size and for skeletal and muscle morphology in young TS girls.

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Lindsey K. Lepley and Timothy A. Butterfield

Eccentric exercise is able to mechanically engage muscle, initiating strain-sensing molecules that promote muscle recovery by inducing beneficial adaptations in neural activity and muscle morphology, 2 critical components of muscle function that are negatively altered after injury. However, due to misinterpreted mathematic modeling and in situ and in vitro stretch protocols, a dogma that exposing muscle to eccentric exercise is associated with injury has been perpetuated in the literature. In response, clinicians have been biased toward using concentric exercise postinjury to improve the recovery of muscle function. Unfortunately, this conventional approach to rehabilitation does not restore muscle function, and reinjury rates remain high. Here, the authors present experimental evidence and theoretical support for the idea that isolated eccentric exercise is ideally suited to combat muscle inhibition and muscle strains and is an attractive alternative to concentric exercise.

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Luke Van Wyk, Gwendolen Jull, Bill Vicenzino, Mathew Greaves and Shaun O’Leary

The purpose of this study was to compare maximal torque exerted about the craniocervical (CC) and cervicothoracic (CT) axes in the sagittal plane using a novel dynamometry device. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) recordings in newton-meters (N·m) were measured in 20 males and 20 females for each of 4 tests: CT extension, CT flexion, CC extension, CC flexion. Twenty of the volunteers repeated the testing procedure on a second occasion to determine the test–retest repeatability of the measures. MVC recordings at the CT axis (extension, 30.24 ± 12.15 N·m; flexion, 18.90 ± 8.21 N⋅m) were 1.4–2 times greater than recordings at the CC axis (extension, 16.46 ± 7.26 N⋅m; fexion, 13.34 ± 5.97 N·m). Extensor to flexor strength ratios reduced from 1.75 at the CT axis to 1.24 at the CC axis, but were similar for both males and females. Good to excellent test–retest repeatability was demonstrated for all tests (ICC = 0.75–0.99, SEM = 0.50–2.44 N·m). Consistent with differences in the muscle morphology at the CC and CT axes, torque exerted about these axes differ. Separate measurement of torque about these axes potentially offers a more comprehensive profile of cervical muscle strength.

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Topic Michelle A. Sandrey PhD, ATC * 1 03 2020 25 2 57 61 10.1123/ijatt.2018-0137 ijatt.2018-0137 RESEARCH REPORTS Intrinsic Foot Muscle Morphology in Active Runners With and Without a History of Exercise-Related Lower Leg Pain Aliza K. Nedimyer MA, LAT, ATC * Brian G. Pietrosimone PhD, ATC

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Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita and Greg Ryan

Schoenfeld et al 6 Yue et al 29 Study title Effect of RT frequency on neuromuscular performance and muscle morphology after 8 wk in trained men. HFRT is not more effective than LFRT in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men. Influence of RT frequency on muscular adaptations in well