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Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan and Rudi Meir

Muscle physiology is an area of great interest for scientists. The first half of the 20th century saw contributions to the body of knowledge of muscle mechanics by notable scientists such as Hill, Abbott, Fenn, Huxley, and Katz. 1 – 7 The generally accepted mechanism of active force production in

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Hendriek C. Boshuizen, Lysander Stemmerik, Marja H. Westhoff and Marijke Hopman-Rock

Elderly participants experiencing difficulty in chair rising and with a maximum knee-extensor torque below 87.5 N · m were randomized to different versions of a strength-training program for the knee-extensors: to a high-guidance group (HG; two group sessions supervised by a physical therapist and one unsupervised home session per week, n = 17), a medium-guidance group (MG; one supervised group session and two unsupervised home sessions per week, n = 16), or a control group (C; no exercise, n = 16). Maximal isometric knee strength increased more in HG than in C (p = .03) and with increasing guidance (p = .03). The effect was mainly the result of participants with low initial strength. Walking speed increased more for HG than for C (p = .02) and than for MG (p = .06). No statistically significant improvements were seen on other functional tests. In summary, the study shows a trend toward better results with more supervision, but more and larger studies are needed to confirm this.

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Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Felipe de Camargo Forte, Joelly Mahnic de Toledo, Roberto Costa Krug and Jefferson Fagundes Loss

The aim of this study was to compare shoulder muscle force and moment production during external rotation performed in the transverse and sagittal planes. An optimization model was used for estimating shoulder muscle force production of infraspinatus, teres minor, supraspinatus, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid and posterior deltoid muscles. The model uses as input data the external rotation moment, muscle moment arm magnitude, muscle physiologic cross-sectional area and muscle specific tension. The external rotation moment data were gathered from eight subjects in transverse and six subjects in sagittal plane using an isokinetic dynamometer. In the sagittal plane, all studied muscles presented larger estimated force in comparison with the transverse plane. The infraspinatus, teres minor, supraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles presented larger moment in sagittal when compared with transverse plane. When prescribing shoulder rehabilitation exercises, therapists should bear in mind the described changes in muscle force production.

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Jim Potvin

of us in biomechanics use surface electromyography to estimate muscle force. This comes with many challenges and, frankly, heartbreak. However, it forced me to understand muscle physiology and neural control in a way that I likely would not have, if I had direct force measurements at my disposal

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Walter Herzog

its support by the undisputed leader of 20th century muscle physiology. Not only A.V. Hill, but also other prominent muscle physiologists, including Andrew Huxley, supported the instability theory. He associated it with the “creep” phenomenon of muscles, 2 while others used it to justify the

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Özlem Aslan, Elif Balevi Batur and Jale Meray

action of muscles: physiology, injury, and adaptation . Exerc Sports Sci Rev . 1989 ; 17 : 157 – 185 . 26. Bellew JW , Malone TR . Aging and isokinetic strength . In: Brown LE , ed. Isokinetics in Human Performance . Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics ; 2000 : 324 – 338 . 27. Clarkson PM

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Carol A. Boliek, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Lauren Pedersen, Julia R. Esch and Jacqueline Cummine

analysis of intermuscular coherence. Intermuscular coherence is an analysis based on a cross-correlation of muscle physiological signals (i.e., from electromyography [EMG]) in the frequency domain. Coherence values range between 0 and 1 and indicate the strength of correlation between muscular activity of

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

. PubMed ID: 23111834 Stamler , J.S. , & Meissner , G. ( 2001 ). Physiology of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle . Physiological Reviews, 81 ( 1 ), 209 – 237 . PubMed ID: 11152758 doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209 10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.209 Tan , F.H. , Polglaze , T. , & Dawson , B

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Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz

. Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease: A Textbook of Muscle Physiology . Manchester, UK : Manchester University Press ; 1990 . 19. Jung IY , Chae JH , Park SK , et al . The correlation analysis of functional factors and age with Duchenne muscular dystrophy . Ann Rehabil Med . 2012 ; 36 ( 1

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim and Yun-Hee Kim

. 2005 ; 95 ( 5–6 ): 447 – 453 . PubMed ID: 16177916 doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0013-8 10.1007/s00421-005-0013-8 16177916 19. Maikala RV , Bhambhani YN . Functional changes in cerebral and paraspinal muscle physiology of healthy women during exposure to whole-body vibration . Accid Anal Prev . 2008