Key Points ▸ Correlations exist between anthropometric measures and transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness, but are influenced by positions and history of low back pain status. ▸ Mass and body mass index were the most consistent normalization variables for the transversus
Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart
Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner
positions that require more stability, and the increase in abdominal and lumbar muscle thickness significantly increases the static and dynamic balance skills of individuals ( Anderson & Behm, 2005 ; Hicks et al., 2005 ). Loss of strength in trunk muscles in older adults may lead to changes in the body
Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird
hypothesized that performing these tasks on an Oov would elicit greater increases in TrA, IO, and EO thickness than both a foam roller and a stable Pilates table, while also providing greater comfort than the foam roller. A secondary hypothesis was that the SLR task would elicit the greatest muscle thickness
Ryota Akagi, Soichiro Iwanuma, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Toshimasa Yanai and Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the contraction-induced increase in distal biceps brachii tendon moment arm is related to that in elbow flexor muscle thickness, with a specific emphasis on the influence of the site-related differences in muscle thickness. The moment arm and muscle thickness were determined from sagittal and cross-sectional images, respectively, of the right arm obtained by magnetic resonance imaging of nine young men. The muscle thickness was measured at levels from the reference site (60% of the upper arm length from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus) to 60 mm distal to it (every 10 mm; 7 measurement sites). At 80° of elbow flexion, the moment arm and muscle thickness were determined at rest and during 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (60%MVC) of isometric elbow flexion. Only the relative change from rest to 60%MVC in muscle thickness at the level 60 mm distal to the reference site correlated significantly with that of the moment arm. This result indicates that the contraction-induced increase in distal biceps brachii tendon moment arm is related to that in elbow flexor muscle thickness near the corresponding muscle-tendon junction.
Shandi L. Partner, Mark Alan Sutherlin, Shellie Acocello, Susan A. Saliba, Eric M. Magrum and Joe M. Hart
Individuals with low back pain (LBP) have reduced function of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles. Biofeedback during exercise may increase the ability to contract the TrA and LM muscles compared with exercise alone.
To compare TrA preferential activation ratio (PAR) and the percent change in LM-muscle thickness in patients with LBP history before and after exercise with or without biofeedback.
Controlled laboratory study.
University research laboratory.
20 LBP individuals, 10 exercise alone and 10 exercise with biofeedback.
Patients were allotted to tabletop exercises in isolation or tabletop exercises with visual, auditory, and tactile biofeedback.
Main Outcome Measures:
TrA PAR and percent change in LM-muscle thickness.
There were no differences between groups at baseline (all P > .05). Nonparametric statistics showed decreased resting muscle thickness for total lateral abdominal-wall muscles (P = .007) but not TrA (P = .410) or LM (P = .173). Percent TrA thickness increased from table to standing positions before (P = .006) and after exercise (P = .009). TrA PAR increased after exercise (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.03 ± 0.04, P = .033) for all patients and for exercise with biofeedback (pre 0.02 ± 0.01, post 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .037) but not for exercise alone (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.02 ± 0.05, P = .241). No group differences were observed for TrA PAR before (exercise 0.01 ± 0.02, exercise with biofeedback 0.02 ± 0.01, P = .290) or after exercise (exercise 0.02 ± 0.05, exercise with biofeedback 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .174). There were no group differences in LM percent change before exercise (P = .999) or after exercise (P = .597). In addition, no changes were observed in LM percent change as a result of exercise among all participants (P = .391) or for each group (exercise P = .508, exercise with biofeedback P = .575).
TrA PAR increased after a single session of exercises, whereas no thickness changes occurred in LM.
Madoka Ogawa, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Michael G. Bemben and Takashi Abe
Previous studies investigated the relationship between ultrasound-derived anatomical muscle thickness (MTH) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume in several limb and trunk muscles; however, the adductor muscle that contributes to hip adduction and pelvic stabilization, as well as balance ability, has not been studied.
To examine the relationship between MTH of the lower, middle, and upper thigh measured by B-mode ultrasound and the muscle CSA and volume of adductor muscle obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the possibility of predicting adductor muscle CSA/volume using ultrasound-derived MTH.
University research laboratory.
10 men and 10 women (20–41 y old) volunteered to participate in this study.
Main Outcome Measures:
A series of continuous muscle CSAs along the thigh were measured by MRI scans (1.5-T scanner, GE Signa). In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the adductors was analyzed, and the muscle volume was calculated by multiplying muscle CSA by slice thickness. Thigh MTH was measured by B-mode ultrasound (Aloka SSD-500) at 5 sites (anterior 30%, 50%, and 70% and posterior 50% and 70% of thigh length).
A strong correlation was observed between anterior 30% MTH and 30% adductor CSA in men (r = .845, P < .002) and women (r = .952, P < .001) and in both groups combined (r = .922, P < .001). Anterior 30% MTH was also strongly correlated to adductor muscle volume when combined with thigh length (n = 20, r = .949, P < .001). However, there were moderate or nonsignificant correlations between anterior and posterior 50% and 70% MTH and adductor muscle CSA/volume.
The results suggest that MTH in the upper portion of anterior thigh best reflects adductor muscle CSA or muscle volume, while the lower portions of the anterior and posterior sites are least likely to predict adductor muscle size.
Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Tyler Garcia, Yohan Shirazi and Ross McArthur
, muscle force, and muscle thickness [MT]) that were similar to known BFR pressures. We also hypothesized that elastic knee wraps would produce similar acute muscular changes compared with LL/high-load (HL) exercise done to failure but reduce the amount of time or repetitions. Thus, the purpose of this
John M. Radnor, Jon L. Oliver, Charlotte M. Waugh, Gregory D. Myer and Rhodri S. Lloyd
–length and force–velocity characteristics ( 37 ), age- and maturity-related comparisons of muscle architecture measures among adults, adolescents, and children are sparse. Research suggests that adults demonstrate greater muscle thickness than children ( 20 , 30 ), while older adolescents exhibit greater
Ryota Akagi, Tomofumi Shikiba, Jun Tanaka and Hideyuki Takahashi
We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twentythree young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.
Nobuo Takeshima, Keizo Shimada, Mohammod M. Islam, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yoshie Ishida and William F. Brechue
To clarify the progression of muscle loss in nursing home residents, frail women (n = 16; age: 85 ± 9 years; residence time: 764 days) were assessed for physical activity, caloric intake, and site-specific muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) using B-mode ultrasound at nine anatomical sites at four intervals over one year. Height, body weight, and BMI did not change. Physical activity (246 steps/day) and nutritional intake (1,441 kcal, 60.3 g protein/day) were unaltered throughout the study. Subjects experienced a significant, progressive loss of muscle indicated by decrements in anterior upper arm (20%), posterior upper arm (25%), abdomen (20%), subscapular (33%), anterior thigh (15%), posterior thigh (22%), anterior lower leg (11%), posterior lower leg (13%), and forearm (15%) MTH. At study inception, prevalence of sarcopenia was related to muscle loss in the upper leg, while upper body muscle wasting contributed to sarcopenia later and was unrelated to physical activity, nutritional input, or duration of residence.