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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough and Robert F. Chapman

normal exercise training loads throughout the duration of the study. Figure 1 —Schematic of the experimental design. FiO 2 indicates fraction of inspired oxygen; IMT, inspiratory muscle training; TT, time trial. V ˙ O 2 peak Testing A stepwise incremental exercise test, conducted on an

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

One of these exercises is inspiratory muscle training (IMT), which is believed to improve the strength and endurance of the respiratory muscles. 7 Inspiratory muscle training is a form of resistance (weight) training that strengthens the muscles of respiration. When these muscles are regularly

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos and Marlene A. Moreno

fundamental. 5 Among the several known training methods aimed at improving physical performance, such as training periodization and technical–tactical training, the use of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) technique is recommended for the periodization of high-performance competitive teams in various Olympic

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Renato Semadeni and Kai-Uwe Schmitt

Objective:

In this study a numerical model of a skier was developed to investigate the effect of different rehabilitation strategies after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture.

Methods:

A computer model using a combined finite-element and multibody approach was established. The model includes a detailed representation of the knee structures, as well as all major leg muscles. Using this model, different strategies after ACL rupture were analyzed.

Results:

The benefit of muscle training to compensate for a loss of the ACL was shown. The results indicate that an increase of 10% of the physiological cross-sectional area has a positive effect without subjecting other knee structures to critical loads. Simulating the use of a hamstring graft indicated increasing knee loads. A patellar-tendon graft resulted in an increase of the stress on the lateral collateral ligament.

Conclusion:

Muscle training of both extensors and flexors is beneficial in medical rehabilitation of ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees.

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Andrew M. Edwards and Raewyn E. Walker

The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been the subject of considerable controversy in terms of whether it is beneficial to endurance athletes and because a convincing physiological rationale has not been identified to explain its mechanism of action. Early studies suggested that IMT was an ineffectual intervention for gains in either maximal aerobic power or endurance-specific performance. More rigorous recent research supports the observation that maximal aerobic power is not receptive to IMT; however, closer evaluation of both early and contemporary research indicates that responses to endurance-specific performance tests are sensitive to IMT. As the aim of endurance training is to improve endurance performance rather than maximal aerobic power, it is plausible that IMT may be useful in specific performance-related circumstances. Performance adaptations following IMT appear to be connected with post training reports of attenuated effort sensations, but this common observation has tended to be overlooked by researchers in preference for a reductionist explanation. This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of IMT from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.

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Marisa Colston, Tina Taylor and Ashley Minnick

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Mark Watsford and Aron Murphy

This research examined the effects of respiratory-muscle (RM) training on RM function and exercise performance in older women. Twenty-six women (60–69 yr of age) were assessed for spirometry, RM strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), inspiratory-muscle endurance, and walking performance to a perceived exertion rating of “hard.” They were randomly allocated to a threshold RM training group (RMT) or a nonexercising control group (CON) for 8 wk. After training, the 22% (inspiratory) and 30% (expiratory) improvements in RM strength in the RMT group were significantly higher than in the CON group (p < .05). The RMT group also displayed several significant performance improvements, including improved within-group treadmill performance time (12%) and reductions in submaximal heart rate (5%), percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation (16%), and perceived exertion for breathing (8%). RM training appears to improve RM function in older women. Furthermore, these improvements appear to be related to improved submaximal exercise performance.

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Scott K. Lynn, Ricardo A. Padilla and Kavin K.W. Tsang

Context:

Proper functioning of the intrinsic foot musculature (IFM) is essential in maintaining the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). Improper functioning of the IFM leads to excessive pronation of the foot, which has been linked to various pathologies. Therefore, training the IFM to avoid excessive pronation may help prevent some of these pathologies; however, it is not clear how to train these muscles optimally.

Objective:

To investigate the effects of 2 different types of IFM training on the height of the MLA and static- and dynamic-balance task performance.

Design:

Randomized controlled trial, repeated-measures mixed-model design.

Setting:

University biomechanics laboratory for testing and a home-based training program.

Participants:

24 healthy, university-age volunteers (3 groups of 8) with no history of major lower limb pathology or balance impairment.

Interventions:

One experimental group performed 4 wk of the short-foot exercise (SFE) and the other performed 4 wk of the towel-curl exercise (TCE). Participants were asked to perform 100 repetitions of their exercise per day.

Main Outcome Measures:

Navicular height during weight bearing, the total range of movement of the center of pressure (COP) in the mediolateral (ML) direction for a static-balance test and a dynamic-balance test.

Results:

There were no differences in the navicular height or static-balance tests. For the dynamic-balance test, all groups decreased the ML COP movement on the dominant limb by a small amount (~5 mm); however, the SFE group was able to decrease COP movement much more than the TCE group in the nondominant limb.

Conclusions:

The SFE appeared to train the IFM more effectively than the TCE; however, there were differing results between the dominant and nondominant legs. These imbalances need to be taken into consideration by clinicians.

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

-group randomized controlled trial in which 81 institutionalized older Spanish adults with sarcopenia were randomized in a single sequence (simple randomization) to one of three balanced groups: one control group (CG) and two resistance training groups (peripheral muscle training group [PMTG] and respiratory muscle

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling and John H. Hollman

muscles were not. Based on our data, we conclude that push-ups performed with suspension training systems may provide benefit if one’s goal is to enhance torso muscle training. We also examined if a dual-instability condition (feet suspended with hands on unstable surfaces) provided any greater muscle