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Hypoxia Increases Muscle Hypertrophy Induced by Resistance Training

Akinobu Nishimura, Masaaki Sugita, Ko Kato, Aki Fukuda, Akihiro Sudo, and Atsumasa Uchida


Recent studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion (kaatsu training) induces muscle hypertrophy. A local hypoxic environment facilitates muscle hypertrophy during kaatsu training. We postulated that muscle hypertrophy can be more efficiently induced by placing the entire body in a hypoxic environment to induce muscle hypoxia followed by resistance training.


Fourteen male university students were randomly assigned to hypoxia (Hyp) and normoxia (Norm) groups (n = 7 per group). Each training session proceeded at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and comprised four sets of 10 repetitions of elbow extension and fexion. Students exercised twice weekly for 6 wk and then muscle hypertrophy was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and muscle strength was evaluated based on 1RM.


Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex (exercised fexor of the hypoxia group) than for the Hyp-N (nonexercised fexor of the hypoxia group) or Norm-Ex fexor (P < .05, Bonferroni correction). Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex than the Hyp-N extensor. Muscle strength was significantly increased early (by week 3) in the Hyp-Ex, but not in the Norm-Ex group.


This study suggests that resistance training under hypoxic conditions improves muscle strength and induces muscle hypertrophy faster than under normoxic conditions, thus representing a promising new training technique.

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The Effect of Low-Load Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Trained Men: A Critically Appraised Topic

Nick Dobson

Clinical Scenario Resistance training (RT) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvements in body composition in both untrained and trained individuals. The exact physiological mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy have not been fully elucidated, but the prime candidates appear

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Making Sense of Muscle Protein Synthesis: A Focus on Muscle Growth During Resistance Training

Oliver C. Witard, Laurent Bannock, and Kevin D. Tipton

a single bout of resistance exercise combined with a nutritional intervention (REx) and chronic phenotypic adaptations (i.e., muscle hypertrophy) to resistance exercise training and repeated dietary manipulation (RET). An early report by Balagopal et al. ( 1997 ) supported the idea that acute

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Influence of Muscle Hypertrophy on the Moment Arm of the Triceps Brachii Muscle

Norihide Sugisaki, Taku Wakahara, Koichiro Murata, Naokazu Miyamoto, Yasuo Kawakami, Hiroaki Kanehisa, and Tetsuo Fukunaga

Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle’s anatomical crosssectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSAmax (33.6 ± 11.9%, P < .001) and moment arm (5.5 ± 4.0%, P = .001) significantly increased after training, whereas the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon did not change (P > .05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmax and the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible.

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Specific Adaptations to 0%, 15%, 25%, and 50% Velocity-Loss Thresholds During Bench Press Training

Luis Rodiles-Guerrero, Pedro Jesús Cornejo-Daza, Juan Sánchez-Valdepeñas, Julian Alcazar, Carlos Rodriguez-López, Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, Luis María Alegre, Juan A. León-Prados, and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

considered when designing RT, since intensity-matched squat training programs differing in the VL incurred within the set induced distinct adaptations, with higher VL thresholds (40%) eliciting greater muscle hypertrophy and lower VL (10%–20%) resulting in greater neuromuscular benefits. 3 Similar or even

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The Effect of Whole Egg Intake on Muscle Mass: Are the Yolk and Its Nutrients Important?

Heitor O. Santos, Gederson K. Gomes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Erick P. de Oliveira

effect seems to be minimal for promoting muscle hypertrophy. ▸ Whole egg intake seems to promote a greater acute muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response when compared with egg white in young men. ▸ Limited evidence shows that whole egg intake does not promote higher muscle mass gains than white egg

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The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction on Muscle Hypertrophy and Tendon Thickness in Healthy Adults’ Distal Lower-Extremity: A Critically Appraised Topic

Daniel R. Post, William A. Stackhouse, Jennifer L. Ostrowski, Jordan D. Bettleyon, and Ellen K. Payne

and biceps brachii 8 – 10 have been frequently studied with positive results; however, the distal lower-extremity is infrequent in the research. For these reasons, muscle hypertrophy and tendon thickness in the lower-extremity were chosen to be critically appraised to provide information on BFR and

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Role of Protein and Hydrolysates before Exercise

Kevin D. Tipton

Adaptations to exercise training are determined by the response of metabolic and molecular mechanisms that determine changes in proteins. The type, intensity, and duration of exercise, as well as nutrition, determine these responses. The importance of protein, in the form of intact proteins, hydrolysates, or free amino acids, for exercise adaptations is widely recognized. Exercise along with protein intake results in accumulation of proteins that influence training adaptations. The total amount of protein necessary to optimize adaptations is less important than the type of protein, timing of protein intake, and the other nutrients ingested concurrently with the protein. Acute metabolic studies offer an important tool to study the responses of protein balance to various exercise and nutritional interventions. Recent studies suggest that ingestion of free amino acids plus carbohydrates before exercise results in a superior anabolic response to exercise than if ingested after exercise. However, the difference between pre- and post exercise ingestion of intact proteins is not apparent. Thus, the anabolic response to exercise plus protein ingestion seems to be determined by the interaction of timing of nutrient intake in relation to exercise and the nutrients ingested. More research is necessary to delineate the optimal combination of nutrients and timing for various types of training adaptations. Protein and amino acid intake have long been deemed important for athletes and exercising individuals. Olympic athletes, from the legendary Milo to many in the 1936 Berlin games, reportedly consumed large amounts of protein. Modern athletes may consume slightly less than these historical figures, yet protein is deemed extremely important by most. Protein is important as a source of amino acids for recovery from exercise and repair of damaged tissues, as well as for adaptations to exercise training, such as muscle hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis.

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Dose-Response Relationship of Weekly Resistance-Training Volume and Frequency on Muscular Adaptations in Trained Men

Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry, and Leigh Breen

Skeletal muscle is pivotal in the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, 1 favoring preservation and/or accretion of muscle mass, strength, and power. The most potent nonpharmacological stimulus inducing skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength is resistance training (RT). Mechanical tension and

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Creatine Supplementation Does Not Influence the Ratio Between Intracellular Water and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Resistance-Trained Men

Alex S. Ribeiro, Ademar Avelar, Witalo Kassiano, João Pedro Nunes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Andreo F. Aguiar, Michele C.C. Trindade, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, and Edilson S. Cyrino

Muscle hypertrophy is one of the main morphological adaptations resulting from resistance training (RT). Due to the trainability principle, trained individuals exhibit a lesser magnitude of gains in muscle mass than novice or detrained subjects ( Ahtiainen et al., 2003 ; Kraemer & Ratamess, 2004