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Leonardo Cesanelli, Sigitas Kamandulis, Nerijus Eimantas, and Danguole Satkunskiene

 al . Architectural, functional and molecular responses to concentric and eccentric loading in human skeletal muscle . Acta Physiol . 2014 ; 210 ( 3 ): 642 – 654 . doi:10.1111/apha.12225 10.1111/apha.12225 18. Franchi MV , Reeves ND , Narici MV . Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to eccentric vs

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Oliver C. Witard, Laurent Bannock, and Kevin D. Tipton

the training process. Nevertheless, greater rates of MPS in untrained individuals still may be considered beneficial since they are indicative of greater rates of protein turnover and muscle remodeling following exercise. (b) The predictive value of the acute response of MPS in distinguishing between

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Thomas M. Doering, Peter R. Reaburn, Stuart M. Phillips, and David G. Jenkins

Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non–muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.

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Ronald L. Terjung, Ryszard Zarzeczny, and H.T. Yang

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity (mito), tissue blood flow (BF) capacity, and oxygen exchange capacity (e.g., DO2) appear to be well matched. The different skeletal muscle fiber types and muscle remodeled, due to inactivity >(e.g., related to aging or disease) or exercise training, exhibit widely differing aerobics capacities (V̇O2max). Yet, there are remarkably coordinated alterations in these 3 parameters in each of these conditions. With such a balance, there is likely shared control among these parameters in limiting (V̇O2max) of muscle, although this is a matter of considerable debate. The reduction in aerobic capacity in elderly can be improved by submaximal aerobic exercise training; this is related to increases in muscle mitochondria concentration and capillarity, but probably not BF capacity, as this is limited by central cardiovascular function. Thus, exercise-induced biochemical adaptations and angiogenesis occur in the elderly. The increase in muscle capillarity likely contributes to the increased oxygen exchange capacity, typical of endurance type training. The increase in [mito] appears essential to realize the increased in muscle V̇O2max with training and amplifies the rate-limiting influence of the muscle’s oxygen exchange capacity. Further, vascular remodeling induced by exercise in the elderly could be effective at improving flow capacity, if limited by peripheral obstruction. Thus, the limits to aerobic function specific to aged muscle appear most influenced by inactivity, whereas central cardiovascular changes impact whole body performance. Some may consider the aged myocyte as a small, inactive, normal myocyte in need of activity!

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Adam R. Jajtner, Jay R. Hoffman, Adam M. Gonzalez, Phillip R. Worts, Maren S. Fragala, and Jeffrey R. Stout


Resistance training is a common form of exercise for competitive and recreational athletes. Enhancing recovery from resistance training may improve the muscle-remodeling processes, stimulating a faster return to peak performance.


To examine the effects of 2 different recovery modalities, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and cold-water immersion (CWI), on performance and biochemical and ultrasonographic measures.


Thirty resistance-trained men (23.1 ± 2.9 y, 175.2 ± 7.1 cm, 82.1 ± 8.4 kg) were randomly assigned to NMES, CWI, or control (CON).

Design and Setting:

All participants completed a high-volume lower-body resistance-training workout on d 1 and returned to the human performance laboratory 24 (24H) and 48 h (48H) postexercise for follow-up testing.


Blood samples were obtained preexercise (PRE) and immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 24 h (24H), and 48 h (48H) post. Subjects were examined for performance changes in the squat exercise (total repetitions and average power per repetition), biomarkers of inflammation, and changes in cross-sectional area and echo intensity (EI) of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis muscles.


No differences between groups were observed in the number of repetitions (P = .250; power: P = .663). Inferential-based analysis indicated that increases in C-reactive protein concentrations were likely increased by a greater magnitude after CWI compared with CON, while NMES possibly decreased more than CON from IP to 24H. Increases in interleukin-10 concentrations between IP and 30P were likely greater in CWI than NMES but not different from CON. Inferential-based analysis of RF EI indicated a likely decrease for CWI between IP and 48H. No other differences between groups were noted in any other muscle-architecture measures.


Results indicated that CWI induced greater increases in pro- and anti-inflammatory markers, while decreasing RF EI, suggesting that CWI may be effective in enhancing short-term muscle recovery after high-volume bouts of resistance exercise.

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, and Diego Moreno-Pérez

essential fatty acids that are relevant nutrients in supporting muscle remodeling ( Phillips, 2012 ). Indeed, the ingestion of a postworkout hydrolyzed beef protein was effective to protect muscle mass in male endurance athletes ( Naclerio et al., 2017 ). On the other hand, whey is composed of several

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William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn, and Tom Clifford

improved overnight MPS by ∼22%, indicative of enhanced muscle remodeling following the exercise bout. 12 , 13 These effects have been replicated in subsequent studies 14 – 16 and suggest that perhaps by improving MPS, CP supplementation might enhance recovery when exercise is performed late in the

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield, and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

an increase in skeletal muscle cross sectional area when applied to muscles actively recovering from atrophy. 32 Recent research has also demonstrated that when applied at therapeutic loads, massage does not cause any overt damage to muscle fibers themselves but may increase muscle remodeling and

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey, and John B. Cronin

MV , Reeves ND , Narici MV . Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to eccentric vs concentric loading: morphological, molecular, and metabolic adaptations . Front Physiol . 2017 ; 8 ( 447 ): 1 – 16 . 10.3389/fphys.2017.00447 4. Oranchuk DJ , Storey AG , Nelson AR , Cronin JB

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Kevin L. de Keijzer, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Antonio Dello Iacono, and Marco Beato

.87045 31624418 12. Franchi MV , Reeves ND , Narici MV . Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to eccentric vs concentric loading: morphological, molecular, and metabolic adaptations . Front Physiol . 2017 ; 8 : 447 . PubMed ID: 28725197 doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00447 10.3389/fphys.2017.00447 28725197