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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway, and Jay Hertel

differences in general injury rates or patterns exist among sexes or within age groups of adolescents. 3 – 5 , 12 , 14 Muscle strains are among the most common injuries at all levels of soccer. Specifically, thigh strains are among the most common injury among high school soccer players. 6 , 8 , 10 , 12 , 13

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Ioanna K. Bolia, Alexander E. Weber, Hansel Ihn, Paul Won, Laith K. Hasan, Aryan Haratian, Lisa Noceti-Dewit, Russ Romano, James E. Tibone, and Seth C. Gamradt

NCAA Division I institution. ▸ Overhead athletes may return to sport at approximately 3 weeks following abdominal muscle strain injuries managed with physical therapy. Volleyball athletes may be at greater risk of abdominal muscle strain injuries compared with athletes participating in other overhead

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Brent A. Baker

Clinical Scenario:

Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system that, when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli. Overt muscle-strain injury can be traumatic, clinically diagnosable, properly managed, and a remarkably common event, yet our contemporary understanding of how age and environmental stressors affect the initial and subsequent induction of injury and how the biological processes resulting from this event are modifiable and, eventually, lead to functional restoration and healing of skeletal muscle and adjacent tissues is presently unclear. Even though the secondary injury response to and recovery from "contraction-induced" skeletal-muscle injury are impaired with aging, there is no scientific consensus as to the exact mechanism responsible for this event. Given the multitude of investigative approaches, particular consideration given to the appropriateness of the muscle-injury model, or research paradigm, is critical so that outcomes may be physiologically relevant and translational. In this case, methods implementing stretch-shortening contractions, the most common form of muscle movements used by all mammals during physical movement, work, and activity, are highlighted.

Clinical Relevance:

Understanding the fundamental evidence regarding how aging influences the responsivity of skeletal muscle to strain injury is vital for informing how clinicians approach and implement preventive strategies, as well as therapeutic interventions. From a practical perspective, maintaining or improving the overall health and tissue quality of skeletal muscle as one ages will positively affect skeletal muscle’s safety threshold and responsivity, which may reduce incidence of injury, improve recovery time, and lessen overall fiscal burdens.

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Thales M. Medeiros, João B. Ribeiro-Alvares, Carolina G. Fritsch, Gabriel S. Oliveira, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Evangelos Pappas, and Bruno M. Baroni

on hamstring eccentric strength and other muscle strain risk factors in high-level football players. Methods Study Design A randomized trial was designed to determine the effects of NHE training programs performed once or twice a week on HSI risk factors in male football players. Volunteers allocated

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Neil Chapman, John William Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan, and Rudi Meir

.07.005 11. Schache AG , Kim HJ , Morgan DL , Pandy MG . Hamstring muscle forces prior to and immediately following an acute sprinting-related muscle strain injury . Gait Posture . 2010 ; 32 ( 1 ): 136 – 140 . PubMed ID: 20395142 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.03.006 20395142 10.1016/j

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John J. Smith and Daniel J. Baer

college football injuries, and because LE injury rates have risen in this population in recent years, 12 we also sought to determine whether LE muscle strains/practice session and time-loss LE muscle strains/practice session would be lower following the rule changes. Methods Participants In this

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Simone Ciacci, Rocco Di Michele, Silvia Fantozzi, and Franco Merni


Kinematic asymmetry is believed to be associated with elevated risk for muscle injury, but little is known about the links between hamstring injuries and asymmetry of sprinting mechanics.


To evaluate the value of kinematic analysis of sprinting for the detection of injury-related asymmetry in athletes with a history of hamstring strain.


Six sub-elite male sprinters, including two who sustained a hamstring strain injury.

Outcome Measures:

Absolute differences between left and right symmetry indices and symmetry angles were both calculated for ground contact time and selected angular displacements. Measurements were acquired at foot strike, during the stance phase, and at toe-off.


At toe-off, injured athletes exhibited greater knee flexion and less hip extension for the injured extremity compared to the uninjured extremity. Symmetry indices for these variables markedly exceeded an established 15% threshold for clinically relevant asymmetry. Each of the uninjured athletes exhibited a high degree of symmetry for all parameters, with mean values for symmetry indices significantly lower than the 15% threshold (P < 0.05).


Kinematic analysis of sprinting asymmetry appears to be valuable for identification of elevated risk for hamstring injury.

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Ioanna K. Bolia, Jennifer A. Bell, Hyunwoo P. Kang, Aryan Haratian, Laith K. Hasan, Michael B. Eppler, Russ Romano, James E. Tibone, Seth C. Gamradt, and Alexander E. Weber

Key Points ▸ Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and adductor muscle strain were the predominant diagnoses in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I baseball players with hip–groin injury ▸ Acute hip groin injuries resulted in ∼5 days missed from baseball participation

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Karen Croteau, Nina B. Eduljee, Laurie Murphy, and John Rosene

of field hockey players indicate the most common types of injuries to be sprains and strains, 15 contusions/hematomas and abrasions/lacerations, 13 ankle sprains and upper leg strains, 14 and muscle strains and contusions. 11 This study was the first to examine injury prevalence and patterns in

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Lasse Ishøi, Kasper Krommes, Mathias F. Nielsen, Kasper B. Thornton, Per Hölmich, Per Aagaard, Juan J.J. Penalver, and Kristian Thorborg

Muscle injuries are a significant cause of time loss in professional soccer. The majority of muscle injuries are located in the thigh muscles (hamstring and quadriceps), constituting up to 25% of all soccer injuries and with 9 out of 10 thigh muscle injuries classified as “muscle strains” defined