training ( P < .001; β = 0.993) (Figure 2 ). Figure 2 —Effect of CIP on inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. CIP indicates critical inspiratory pressure; MIP60, 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure; PTh MAX , maximal threshold pressure; SHAM, sham group. § CIP versus SHAM. *MIP60 versus SHAM. °No
Patricia Rehder-Santos, Raphael M. Abreu, Étore De F. Signini, Claudio D. da Silva, Camila A. Sakaguchi, Carla C. Dato, and Aparecida M. Catai
Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick
This manuscript provides information on the rationale for the selection of the muscular strength and endurance test items associated with the Brockport Physical Fitness Test for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairment (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Information on the validity, attainability, and reliability of the 16 tests and their criterion-referenced standards is provided. Suggestions are made for future research.
J. Steven Simpson and Joe W. Priest
Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung, and Jong Kook Song
require highly developed physical fitness components that include flexibility, anaerobic power, muscle strength, and endurance. Various training programs have been introduced for enhancing physical performance in TKD athletes ( Monks et al., 2017 ; Nikolaidis et al., 2015 ; Seo et al., 2015 ), and some
Andrew Skibski, Luk Devorski, Nolan Orfield, and L. Colby Mangum
Isometric stability exercises such as hip bridges are commonly used to target the core musculature. 1 These exercises can be implemented in strength and conditioning programs or rehabilitation protocols to increase muscle strength and endurance. 2 Exercise difficulty can be progressed by
Erin E. Sutton, M. Regina Coll, and Patricia A. Deuster
Acute tyrosine ingestion is thought to improve aerobic endurance, muscle strength and endurance, and anaerobic power of men undergoing severe physiologic stress. In a double-blind, crossover study, 20 men (32 ± 1 y old) underwent 2 loadcarriage treadmill sessions, 1 after taking tyrosine (150 mg/kg L-crystalline tyrosine) and 1 after taking placebo. Tyrosine dosage was based on subject weight and ingested 30 min before load carriage. A physical performance battery was administered after the load carriage: maximal and submaximal handgrip, pull-ups, and stair stepping with weight. Total time on treadmill was not significantly lengthened with ingestion of tyrosine (118.9 ± 1.4 min) as compared with placebo (119.2 ± 1.2 min). Total power for stair stepping (tyrosine 223 ± 8 watts, placebo 216 ± 9 watts) and muscle strength and endurance (handgrip) was not significantly improved by tyrosine ingestion. The results indicate that acute ingestion of tyrosine by healthy men has no measurable effect on endurance, muscle strength, or anaerobic power.
Darren G. Candow, Philip D. Chilibeck, Karen E. Chad, Murray J. Chrusch, K. Shawn Davison, and Darren G. Burke
The authors previously found that creatine (Cr) combined with 12 weeks of resistance training enhanced muscle strength and endurance and lean tissue mass (LTM) in older men. Their purpose in this study was to assess these variables with cessation of Cr combined with 12 weeks of reduced training (33% lower volume) in a subgroup of these men (n = 8, 73 years old) compared with 5 men (69 years old) who did not receive Cr. Strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), endurance (maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets at 70–80% 1-RM), and LTM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of Cr cessation combined with reduced-volume training. No changes in strength or LTM occurred. Muscle endurance was significantly reduced (7–21%; p < .05), with the rate of change similar between groups. Withdrawal from Cr had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with 12 weeks of reduced-volume training.
Yvonne Kahlin, Suzanne Werner, and Marie Alricsson
Physical activity and sport participation often decline during adolescence.
To investigate if physical exercise during 6 months could lead to a positive behavior of physical activity, improve physical fitness and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.
A prospective cluster-randomized controlled intervention study included 104 physically inactive female high school students, 60 in an intervention group and 44 controls. At baseline there were no group differences regarding self-related health. The intervention group exercised at least once per week. A questionnaire and physical fitness tests were used for evaluation, at baseline and 6 months later.
The intervention group improved their self-related health compared with the controls (P = .012). When divided into a regular (n = 27) and an irregular training group (n = 33) the regular training group improved their self-related health compared with the controls, while the irregular training group did not differ from the other groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was improved in the intervention group compared with the controls (P < .001). No group differences were found in muscle strength and endurance.
Physical exercise at least once per week during 6 months improved physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.
Eurico P. César, Cleito S.R. Júnior, and Raphael N. Francisco
Purpose: To compare the effect of static stretching (SS) and cold-water immersion (CWI) on strength performance and blood lactate levels of jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods: A total of 21 male Brazilian jiu-jitsu fighters were randomly assigned to SS (9 × 30-s carpal extension), CWI (3 × 3 min at 10°C), or a control group (CG); their maximal handgrip strength, handgrip muscle endurance, dynamic kimono grip strength test, and blood lactate concentration were assessed before and after a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu fight and after one of the recovery interventions. Results: There was an interaction (F = 9.075; P = .002) and a time effect (F = 11.792; P = .003) for dynamic kimono grip strength test, showing a decrease in performance for the CG (P = .0001; effect size [ES] = 0.52, moderate) and after SS (P = .006; ES = 0.43, small). There was an interaction (F = 3.592; P = .015) and a time effect (F = 122.631; P = .0001) for blood lactate concentration, showing lower levels after CWI versus CG (P = .028; ES = 0.93, moderate) and after CWI versus SS (P = .042; ES = 0.82, moderate). There was an interaction (F = 9.617; P = .001) for handgrip strength, showing an impairment in performance after SS (P = .001; ES = 0.67, moderate). Conclusion: CWI promoted restoration of muscle strength and endurance and reduction in blood lactate levels after the simulated fight and can thus be used by jiu-jitsu athletes as a recovery strategy between fights.
Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough, and Robert F. Chapman
in hypoxia. 9 In theory, IMT could improve hypoxic endurance performance by attenuating the negative consequences of an increased V ˙ E at any given workload in hypoxia through improved respiratory muscle strength and endurance. In normoxia, multiple investigations have demonstrated that chronic