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KyungMo Han and Mark D. Ricard

Context:

Several researchers have suggested that improving evertor strength and peroneus longus reaction time may help alleviate the symptoms of chronic ankle instability and reduce the rate of recurrent ankle sprains.

Objectives:

To determine the effectiveness of a 4-wk elastic-resistance exercise-training program on ankle-evertor strength and peroneus longus latency in subjects with and without a history of ankle sprains (HAS).

Design:

Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Participants:

40 subjects (20 male, 20 female; 20 HAS, 20 healthy). Ten subjects (5 male and 5 female) from each of the HAS and healthy groups were randomly assigned to exercise or control groups.

Interventions:

4-directional elastic-resistance exercise training 2 times/wk for 4 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ankle-evertor strength and peroneal muscle latency after sudden inversion were measured before training, after 4 wk of training, and 4 wk posttraining.

Results:

Four weeks of elastic-resistance exercise training did not elicit significant changes in 1-repetition-maximum ankle-evertor strength between the exercise and control groups (P = .262), HAS and healthy groups (P = .329), or males and females (P = .927). Elastic-resistance exercise training did not elicit significant changes in peroneus longus muscle latency between the exercise and control groups (P = .102), HAS and healthy groups (P = .996), or males and females (P = .947).

Conclusions:

The 4-wk elastic-resistance exercise training had no effect on ankle-evertor strength and reflex latency of the peroneus longus after unexpected ankle inversion.

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Benjamin Henry, Todd McLoda, Carrie L. Docherty and John Schrader

Context:

Peroneal reaction to sudden inversion has been determined to be too slow to overcome the joint motion. A focused plyometric training program may decrease the muscle's reaction time.

Objective:

To determine the effect of a 6-wk plyometric training program on peroneus longus reaction time.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

48 healthy volunteers (age 20.0 ± 1.2 y, height 176.1 ± 16.9 cm, weight 74.5 ± 27.9 kg) from a large Midwestern university. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group.

Interventions:

Independent variables were group at 2 levels (training and no training) and time at 2 levels (pretest and posttest). The dependent variable was peroneal latency measured with surface electromyography. A custom-made trapdoor device capable of inverting the ankle to 30° was also used. Latency data were obtained from the time the trapdoor dropped until the peroneus longus muscle activated. Peroneal latency was measured before and after the 6-wk training period. The no-training group was instructed to maintain current activities. The training group performed a 6-wk plyometric protocol 3 times weekly. Data were examined with a repeated-measures ANOVA with 1 within-subject factor (time at 2 levels) and 1 between-subjects factor (group at 2 levels). A priori alpha level was set at P < .05.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pretest and posttest latency measurements (ms) were recorded for the peroneus longus muscle.

Results:

The study found no significant group-by-time interaction (F 1,46 = 0.03, P = .87). In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest values (pretest = 61.76 ± 14.81 ms, posttest = 59.24 ± 12.28 ms; P = .18) and no difference between the training and no-training groups (training group = 59.10 ± 12.18 ms, no-training group = 61.79 ± 15.18 ms; P = .43).

Conclusions:

Although latency measurements were consistent with previous studies, the plyometric training program did not cause significant change in the peroneus longus reaction time.

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Matthew S. Tenan, Andrew J. Tweedell and Courtney A. Haynes

, Chou LS , Laskowski ER , Smith J , Kaufman KR . The effect of ankle disk training on muscle reaction time in subjects with a history of ankle sprain . Am J Sports Med . 2001 ; 29 ( 5 ): 627 – 632 . PubMed 10.1177/03635465010290051601 11573922 12

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Ali Jalalvand and Mehrdad Anbarian

decreases in muscle force producing capacity, but it also affects the musclesreaction time, movement coordination, precision of motor control, and change in proprioception performance, which resulted in impaired skeletal muscle function and a major risk factor for LEI. 15 Although few studies have focused

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Hooman Minoonejad, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani, Reza Rajabi, Erik A. Wikstrom and Ali Sharifnezhad

10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.94 34. Osborne MD , Chou LS , Laskowski ER , Smith J , Kaufman KR . The effect of ankle disk training on muscle reaction time in subjects with a history of ankle sprain . Am J Sports Med . 2001 ; 29 ( 5 ): 627 – 632 . PubMed ID: 11573922 doi:10

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Moshe Ayalon, Nadav Dotan, Shiri Bretter and Gordon Waddington

’s success. 3 , 7 Previous ankle sprain history was also found to be related to lower scores in ankle proprioceptive ability. Ankle injuries can result in long-term deterioration of postural control, peroneal muscle weakness, prolonged peroneal muscle reaction time, and impaired ankle complex proprioception

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Oren Tirosh, Janet Karin and Gordon Waddington

persisting limitations at the ankle joint, possibly resulting in functional impairment and/or subsequent sprains. 4 Following an ankle sprain, dancers, like other athletes, may demonstrate impaired postural stability, increased postural sway, peroneal muscle weakness, and prolonged peroneal muscle reaction