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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

their physical capacity, it is very difficult to objectively verify fatigue using time-motion analysis alone. Fatigue in AS might also be highly complex, and thus, time-motion characteristics and game-induced decrements in neuromuscular measures (i.e., muscular endurance and power) must also be

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Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb

There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.

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Jeffrey M. Willardson, John Emmett, Jon A. Oliver and Eadric Bressel

Purpose:

This study compared failure versus nonfailure training with equated intensity and volume on lower body muscular endurance in trained men.

Methods:

Each subject performed one lower body workout per week for 6 weeks; the Failure group performed 3 sets of the squat, leg curl, and leg extension exercises to the point of voluntary exhaustion, while the Nonfailure group performed 4 sets for each of these exercises, but with a submaximal number of repetitions that did not allow failure to occur on any set. All subjects performed a pre- and postintervention muscular endurance test that involved 3 sets each for the squat, leg curl, and leg extension exercises. Blood lactate concentration (BL) was assessed before, and at 5 and 10 minutes following the test. Heart rate (HR) was assessed before the test, following the last set of each exercise, and for 10 minutes following the test.

Results:

Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total work (P < .0001) for the postintervention test, with no significant differences between the groups (P = .882). When comparing the pre- and postintervention tests, BL and HR were not significantly different at any time point (P > .05).

Conclusions:

These results indicate that when intensity and volume are equated, failure or nonfailure training results in similar gains in lower body muscular endurance. Therefore, when assessed over relatively short training cycles, the total volume of training might be more important versus whether sets are performed to failure for muscular endurance-related adaptations.

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Christine B. Stopka, Kimberly L. Zambito, David G. Suro, Kevin S. Pearson, Ronald A. Siders and Buffy H. Goff

The purpose of this study was to evaluate gains in muscular endurance and physical capacity to perform work in 22 adolescents and young adults (ages 13-22 years) with MR. The participants were tested before and after two consecutive 3-week sessions of supervised resistance training. Specific muscle strength was evaluated using a three repetition maximum (3RM) test, and muscular endurance was assessed using a repetition to failure (RF) test at 60% of the 3RM. The chest press, leg extension, and torso arm exercises were tested. Participants trained twice per week during the training intervals. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in 3RM, RF, and total work performed during the RF test were found for the leg extension and torso arm exercises. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) in RF performance and total work performed during the RF test were found in the chest press. These results demonstrate that adolescents and young adults with MR can experience significant gains in muscular strength and endurance through a supervised resistance training program.

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Daniel Gould and Maureen Weiss

This study was designed to determine if observing a similar or dissimilar model who makes varying self-efficacy statements influences an observer's efficacy expectations and, in turn, muscular endurance performance. Females (N = 150) were randomly assigned to groups in a 2 × 4 × 3 (model similarity by model talk by trials) factorial design or to a no-model control group. Model similarity was manipulated by having subjects view a female described as a nonathlete (similar) or a male described as a varsity track athlete (dissimilar). The four levels of model talk included: a positive self-talk model who performed and made positive self-efficacy statements, a negative self-talk model who made negative self-efficacy statements, an irrelevant-talk model who made statements unrelated to self-efficacy, and a no-talk model who remained silent throughout the performance. Self-efficacy measures were assessed in addition to performance on three trials of a muscular endurance task. Results revealed that similar model subjects extended their legs significantly longer than dissimilar model and control subjects. Moreover, the similar-positive-talk and similar-no-talk groups performed significantly better than the dissimilar-positive-talk, dissimilar-negative talk, dissimilar-no-talk, and the no-model control groups. Subject self-efficacy, however, was not found to be the major mediating variable affecting these performance changes.

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Deborah L. Feltz and Camala A. Riessinger

An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative merits of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback in enhancing self-efficacy beliefs and performance on a competitive muscular endurance task. College males (n=60) and females (n=60) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: mastery imagery plus feedback, feedback alone, or control condition. Subjects in the imagery-plus-feedback condition were told that one of the pair (always the subject) would receive imagery exposure while the other (always the confederate) would wait outside. Subjects performed two trials against the confederate, who always won by 10 seconds. A Group x Trials interaction for self-efficacy revealed a significant increase for the imagery group after brief exposure. Also, imagery subjects had significantly higher efficacy scores than feedback alone or control subjects after each performance trial. A Group x Trials interaction for performance indicated that imagery subjects initially had significantly longer performance times than did feedback alone or control subjects. Performance feedback alone did not influence efficacy beliefs or performance.

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Norman S. Hannibal III, Sharon Ann Plowman, Marilyn A. Looney and Jason Brandenburg

Background:

Strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility are important components of healthy back function. This study determined the reliability and evaluated the validity of selected low back field tests (FITNESSGRAM ® Trunk Extension [FG-TE] and Box 90° Dynamic Trunk Extension [B-90° DTE]) when compared to laboratory tests (Parallel Roman Chair Dynamic Trunk Extension [PRC-DTE], Parallel Roman Chair Static Trunk Extension [PRC-STE], and Dynamometer Static Back Lift [DSBL]).

Methods:

Forty males age 15.1 ± 1.2 yr and 32 females age 15.5 ± 1.2 yr participated.

Results:

Intraclass test-retest reliability coefficients (one-way ANOVA model for a single measure) ranged from .940 to .996. Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for males and females, respectively, were as follows: B-90° DTE vs. PRC-DTE = .82, .62 (p < .05); B-90° DTE vs. PRC-STE = .55, .38 (p < .05); B-90° DTE vs. DSBL = −.29, −.23; FG-TE vs. PRC-DTE = .23, −.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE = −.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL = −.04, −.36.

Conclusions:

B-90° DTE was shown to be a valid field test when compared to PRC-DTE, but only for the males. Further research on the PRC-DTE and PRC-STE items for adolescents is recommended.

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Jennifer A. Stone

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Charles Boyer, Mark Tremblay, Travis Saunders, Allison McFarlane, Michael Borghese, Meghann Lloyd and Pat Longmuir

This project examined the feasibility, validity, and reliability of the plank isometric hold for children 8–12 years of age. 1502 children (52.5% female) performed partial curl-up and/or plank protocols to assess plank feasibility (n = 823, 52.1% girls), validity (n = 641, 54.1% girls) and reliability (n = 111, 47.8% girls). 12% (n = 52/431) of children could not perform a partial curl-up, but virtually all children (n = 1066/1084) could attain a nonzero score for the plank. Plank performance without time limit was influenced by small effects with age (β = 6.86; p < .001, η2 = 0.03), flexibility (β = 0.79; p < .001, η2 = 0.03), and medium effects with cardiovascular endurance (β = 1.07; p < .001, η2 = 0.08), and waist circumference (β = −0.92; p < .001, η2 = 0.06). Interrater (ICC = 0.62; CI = 0.50, 0.75), intrarater (ICC = 0.83; CI = 0.73, 0.90) and test-retest (ICC = 0.63; CI = 0.46, 0.75) reliability were acceptable for the plank without time limit. These data suggest the plank without time limit is a feasible, valid and reliable assessment of torso muscular endurance for children 8–12 years of age.

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Claire C. Murchison, Avery Ironside, Lila M.A. Hedayat and Heather J.A. Foulds

, 10 Musculoskeletal fitness is an umbrella term encompassing muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscular power, and flexibility. 14 , 15 Musculoskeletal fitness is negatively associated with morbidity, all-cause mortality, and obesity, particularly among adults. 14 , 16 – 21 Many methods exist