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Fredrick Anthony Gardin, David Middlemas, Jennifer L. Williams, Steven Leigh and Rob R. Horn


Navicular drop is widely believed to be an indicator of elevated susceptibility to pronation-related injuries, which may be increased by fatigue in the muscles that dynamically support the medial longitudinal arch.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate navicular drop before and after fatigue of the ankle invertor muscles among individuals with different foot types.


20 male and 16 female recreationally active, college-age volunteers (20.03 ± 1.48 years of age).


Navicular drop was measured before and after inducing fatigue in the ankle invertor muscles. Participants’ foot types were classified as high-arch, neutral, or low-arch.


There was no interaction between foot type and trial, and no main effect for trial. A main effect for foot type was significant (p = .001). Intra-class correlation coefficients for prefatigue and postfatigue measurements indicated good internal consistency.


Our fndings failed to provide any evidence to support the existence of a relationship between ankle invertor muscle fatigue and static measurements of change in navicular height from a sitting to standing position.

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Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb

There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.

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Víctor Torreblanca-Martinez, Fernando M. Otero-Saborido and José A. Gonzalez-Jurado

The purpose was to study the effects of muscle fatigue induced by countermovement jumps (CMJ) on instep kick foot velocity in young male soccer players. Fifteen under-18 soccer players from a professional club performed maximal velocity instep kicks before and after a fatigue protocol that consisted of continuous CMJ. Foot velocity at impact without fatigue, foot velocity at impact with fatigue, CMJ height without fatigue, maximum jump height in fatigue test, and CMJ height change in fatigue test on a dynamometric platform were measured. There was a significant difference between jump height with and without fatigue (P = .00; ES = 0.8), but there were no significant differences between kicking with fatigue and without fatigue (P = .580, ES = 0.10). In conclusion, although the protocol was intense enough to generate fatigue in the muscles involved in CMJ, there were no significant differences in kicking velocity under fatigue conditions with respect to kicking without fatigue in the soccer players studied.

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Manuel D. Quinones and Peter W.R. Lemon

Hydrothermally modified non-genetically modified organisms corn starch (HMS) ingestion may enhance endurance exercise performance via sparing carbohydrate oxidation. To determine whether similar effects occur with high-intensity intermittent exercise, we investigated the effects of HMS ingestion prior to and at halftime on soccer skill performance and repeated sprint ability during the later stages of a simulated soccer match. In total, 11 male university varsity soccer players (height = 177.7 ± 6.8 cm, body mass = 77.3 ± 7.9 kg, age = 22 ± 3 years, body fat = 12.8 ± 4.9%, and maximal oxygen uptake = 57.1 ± 3.9 ml·kg BM−1·min−1) completed the match with HMS (8% carbohydrate containing a total of 0.7 g·kg BM−1·hr−1; 2.8 kcal·kg BM−1·hr−1) or isoenergetic dextrose. Blood glucose was lower (p < .001) with HMS at 15 min (5.3 vs. 7.7 mmol/L) and 30 min (5.6 vs. 8.3 mmol/L) following ingestion, there were no treatment differences in blood lactate, and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower with HMS at 15 min (0.84 vs. 0.86, p = .003); 30 min (0.83 vs. 0.85, p = .004); and 45 min (0.83 vs. 0.85, p = .007) of the first half. Repeated sprint performance was similar for both treatments (p > .05). Soccer dribbling time was slower with isoenergetic dextrose versus baseline (15.63 vs. 14.43 s, p < .05) but not so with HMS (15.04 vs. 14.43 s, p > .05). Furthermore, during the passing test, penalty time was reduced (4.27 vs. 7.73 s, p = .004) with HMS. During situations where glycogen availability is expected to become limiting, HMS ingestion prematch and at halftime could attenuate the decline in skill performance often seen late in contests.

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Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr

differ in their top speed across terrain types; however, MN riders rode at a faster average speed, and the number of turns completed during the representative course was also significantly different between locations. Table 3 Riding Characteristics and Muscular Fatigue Measured Postride Using Strength

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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

contractions and estimate localized muscular fatigue. 3 – 5 EMG techniques have been used to analyze muscle activity in the upper and lower body during the golf swing. 3 , 6 – 14 These studies have assessed shoulder, forearm, upper and lower back, trunk, and lower limb muscles and have mainly focused their

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Daniel E. Lidstone, Justin A. Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Alan R. Needle, Herman van Werkhoven and Jeffrey M. McBride

, possibly indicating development of lower extremity muscular fatigue. 15 Load carriage involves repetitive eccentric loading of the lower limb musculature that has been shown to result in increased fascicle lengths of working muscle. 16 The high number of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exposures during a

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

perceived exertion,” “muscular fatigue,” “sleep quality,” “time of sleep,” and “mental fatigue.” Lines were 10 cm in total. The distance was measured from the beginning of the scale to the cross made by the player. 19 Fosters training load (Fosters TL) was calculated by multiplying the duration of the

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Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals-Vázquez, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A. Casuso, Luis Fontana and Jesús F. Rodríguez Huertas

athletes performing short-duration and explosive exercises because classic methods such as the maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ), heart rate (HR), or lactate concentration do not suffer large variations in these cases and, accordingly, they are not very helpful in detecting the muscular fatigue

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

training context, considering that the only cost of the cluster-set configuration was the addition of 2 minutes to complete the protocol, the clear and meaningful benefits seem well worthwhile. In addition to cluster sets, OPL are also a viable training strategy that can reduce muscular fatigue and