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Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson and Dona J. Housh

The purpose of this investigation was to examine age related changes in muscular power of high school wrestlers. A total of 155 high school wrestlers (M age±SD = 16.5±2.4 yrs) volunteered as subjects for this investigation. The sample included only wrestlers who were ≤ 16.00 years (younger group, n=75) or >17.00 years (older group, n=80). All subjects completed a Wingate anaerobic test to determine mean (MP) and peak (PP) power as well as underwater weighing for body composition assessment. The results indicated significant (p<0.05) group differences for absolute MP and PP but no differences when adjusted for BW and FFW. Thus the enhanced muscular power in the older group of high school wrestlers was associated with increases in BW and FFW.

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Sharon A. Evans, Joan M. Eckerson, Terry J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson

This investigation examined age related differences in the muscular power of the arms in high school wrestlers. Seventy-five volunteers (M age ±SD = 16.3 ±1.2 yrs) were stratified into four age groups (≤15.00; 15.01−16.00; 16.01−17.00, and ≥17.01 yrs) corresponding approximately to the freshman through senior years of high school. Mean power (MP) and peak power (PP) were measured using an arm crank Wingate Anaerobic Test, and body composition was assessed via underwater weighing. The results indicated significant (p<0.05) group differences for absolute MP and PP as well as for relative MP and PP (covaried for body weight). No significant differences were found when MP and PP were adjusted for fat-free weight (FFW). The results suggested that the age related increases in muscular power of the arms were a function of increases in FFW across age.

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Hubert Makaruk, Jared M. Porter, Barbara Długołęcka, Urszula Parnicka and Beata Makaruk

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different foci of attention on parameters related to maximum muscular power in older women. Using a counterbalanced within-participant design, 23 physically active young-old women (age 59-69) completed a maximum effort cycle ergometer test following three types of verbal instructions. The external instruction (EXF) was designed to focus attention on moving the pedals as fast as possible, internal instruction (INF) directed attention toward moving the legs as fast as possible, and a control condition (CON) was created in which participants were instructed to perform the task to the best of their abilities. Results indicated that the EXF and CON conditions resulted in greater muscular power compared with the INF condition. Results also indicated that directing attention internally hindered muscular power performance in older women, which is consistent with the predictions of the constrained action hypothesis.

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Joan M. Eckerson, Dona J. Housh, Terry J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the changes in body composition, isokinetic strength, and muscular power in high school wrestlers across a season of competition. Wrestlers were measured (preseason and postseason) for body composition and isokinetic peak torque for flexion and extension of the dominant forearm and leg. Each subject also completed Wingate anaerobic tests to determine changes in mean power and peak power (PP) of the legs. The results indicated that body weight (BW), fat weight, and percent fat decreased (p < .002) across the wrestling season. PP and absolute peak torque for forearm and leg extension (LE) at 30°·s−1; forearm flexion (FF) at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1; and leg flexion (LF) at 180 and 300°·s−1 were significantly (p < .05) lower postseason. Relative peak torque (adjusted for BW) decreased (p < .05) across the season for LE at 30°·s−1 as well as FF and LF at 180°·s−1. Therefore, changes in BW were not associated with functional advantages in terms of strength or muscular power.

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Thomas Korff and Jody L. Jensen

When performing skillful movement muscular and nonmuscular forces act in concert to produce a resultant force that complies with the goal of the task. Nonmuscular forces are directly dependent on the anthropometry of the performer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age-related changes in relative anthropometric characteristics between 5 and 10 years of age on muscular power production during pedaling. A secondary purpose was to determine the dependence of this effect on movement speed. A torque-driven model of two-legged pedaling was used to track experimental kinematics and forces obtained from 6 experienced adult cyclists pedaling at 60 and 120 rpm. Relative anthropometric characteristics were modified to simulate pedaling for children of 5, 7.5, and 10 years of age. Analyses of variance revealed that age-related differences in anthropometry did not affect the muscular contribution to crank power (p > .05), while they had a significant effect on the muscular contribution to limb power (p < .05). Adjustments by the proximal muscle groups (muscles spanning the hip and knee joints) were necessary to account for anthropometry-driven changes in nonmuscular power. These effects were independent of movement speed. Our results provide researchers with useful information to interpret age-related differences in muscular power production more accurately.

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Jennifer J. Sherwood, Cathy Inouye, Shannon L. Webb and Jenny O

critical to preventing or delaying the loss of physical function, which can ultimately lead to physical disability or the inability to do activities critical for independent living ( Fielding et al., 2011 ). Considering the relationship between lower limb muscular power and physical function, older adults

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Jennifer A. Stone

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Claire C. Murchison, Avery Ironside, Lila M.A. Hedayat and Heather J.A. Foulds

, 10 Musculoskeletal fitness is an umbrella term encompassing muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscular power, and flexibility. 14 , 15 Musculoskeletal fitness is negatively associated with morbidity, all-cause mortality, and obesity, particularly among adults. 14 , 16 – 21 Many methods exist

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Moni Syeda, Jason Bartholomew, Shayane Santiago, Jeff Peterson, Russell T. Baker and Scott W. Cheatham

, stretching, strengthening, and posttreatment of ice. Researchers have recently begun to explore if IASTM application in healthy, physically active adults also results in improvements in muscular power and strength. 6 However, the immediate effectiveness of IASTM on reducing musculoskeletal dysfunctions (i

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

attempts on an analogue handgrip dynamometer (Smedley’s dynamometer; Scandidact, Odder, Denmark) while standing. The dynamometer was adjusted to hand size. The result was divided by body weight for analysis. 20 Muscular power was measured by a vertical jump test as the highest vertical displacement (in