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Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman, and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common neuromuscular disease, seen in 1 in every 3600 live male births. DMD occurs as a result of many mutations in the dystrophin gene of the X chromosome. The mean age of diagnosis, when symptoms are first seen, is 4 years ( 5 , 17 , 28 ). Clinically

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Stephen P. Sayers

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disease affecting muscle fiber integrity in boys that leads to progressive weakness in skeletal muscle and premature death. Currently, there is no known cure for the disease. Different interventions have been explored to delay the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for the DMD patient. Physical activity is one treatment that has generated controversy due to the increased mechanical stress placed on the muscle during contraction. This review explores the literature in animal models and human DMD patients and evaluates the known theoretical risks and benefits of increased physical activity in DMD patients.

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Danielle Peers, Lindsay Eales, Kelvin Jones, Aidan Toth, Hernish Acharya, and Janice Richman–Eisenstat

). NMCs represent a category of diverse and rare genetic conditions, including many forms of muscular dystrophy, that involve the progressive, irreversible weakening of impacted muscle groups, which can lead to increasing mobility, fine motor, respiratory, speech, swallowing, and sensory impairments

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Oded Bar-Or

This study examined gender, disability type, age, and specific diagnostic category in relation to habitual physical activity levels (HPA), perceived fitness (PF), and perceived participation limitations (PPL) of youths, ages 6 to 20 years, in Ontario, Canada. Data collected through a mailed survey (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 1994) were reanalyzed using ANOVA and chi square statistics to provide new information. The 458 girls and 499 boys were classified by disability type: physical, chronic medical, visual, and hearing. Significant differences (p < .01) were between (a) HPA and disability type, specific diagnostic category, and age; (b) PF and disability type; and (c) PPL and disability type. Gender did not influence the results. Youths with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and visual impairment had the most sedentary lifestyles.

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Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and E. Jane Watkinson

This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8–12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children’s perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.

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Carlo Massaroni, Eugenio Cassetta, and Sergio Silvestri

Duchenne muscular dystrophy . Eur Respir J . 2010 ; 35 ( 5 ): 1118 – 1125 . PubMed doi:10.1183/09031936.00037209 10.1183/09031936.00037209 8. LoMauro A , Romei M , Priori R , Laviola M , D’Angelo MG , Aliverti A . Alterations of

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Laura A. Prieto, Justin A. Haegele, and Luis Columna

of these studies used the term “mental retardation”), and two (12.5%) studies included individuals with a variety of different physical disabilities. Five other studies included the following disabilities: various nonspecified motor disabilities, visual impairment, muscular dystrophy, and profound

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Anna Carin Aho, Elisabeth Renmarker, Malin Axelsson, and Jenny Jakobsson

 years. There was a variation in the participants’ diagnosis, but a majority of the participants had been diagnosed with Duchenne or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy ( n  = 9) or cerebral paresis ( n  = 6). Physical functional abilities varied among the participants. Two of the participants walked without

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Damian Haslett, and Brett Smith

(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), cerebral palsy, learning difficulties, hearing impairment, visual impairment, brain injury, muscular dystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta, spina bifida, and epilepsy. The participants described a communication network where PA information can flow from a range of

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Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

provide more useful and valuable information, such as who may benefit most from accessing these services. Other than the five conditions previously mentioned, there appears to be limited literature for other neurological conditions, such as spina bifida (SB) and muscular dystrophy (MD), and surprisingly