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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

increase lean body mass and basal metabolism, jointly assisting with weight control). 3 Additionally, aerobic and resistance exercise have several unique health outcomes (eg, greater maximum oxygen uptake adaptations from aerobic training vs greater muscular strength and endurance adaptations from

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Nicholas M. Pilli, Tyler J. Kybartas, Kristen M. Lagally, and Kelly R. Laurson

diabetes, and all-cause mortality ( 8 , 9 ). The prevalence of MetS in US adults approximates 33% ( 20 ). With no consensus on the definition of pediatric MetS, estimating the prevalence in this group is difficult but ranges from 4% to 15% of youth ( 4 – 6 ). Muscular strength has proven to be an important

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Bong Kil Song, Angelique G. Brellenthin, Joey M. Saavedra, and Duck-chul Lee

understood, age-related factors such as slower metabolism, physical inactivity, hormonal changes, and reductions in muscle mass may also contribute to GERD. 8 , 9 Many studies reported that muscular strength (MS) is an emerging, strong, and independent predictor of chronic disease in older adults. 10 , 11

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Raki Kawama, Masamichi Okudaira, Hirohiko Maemura, and Satoru Tanigawa

deficits in muscular strength, particularly hip extension and knee flexion, probably due to atrophy and functional decline of the hamstrings. 3 – 5 Meanwhile, the distal tendon of the hamstrings is sometimes utilized as a replacement graft in surgery after anterior cruciate ligament injury. 6 Anterior

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Luke Hogarth, Mark McKean, Max McKenzie, and Tyler Collings

involved in match play suggest that the development of lower body muscular strength is important to player performance and injury avoidance regardless of playing position. The relationship between muscular strength and athletic performance is well established in the research literature. 9 , 10 Defined as

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Edilson S. Cyrino

effects of sarcopenia and dynapenia, as this population generally possesses lower levels of muscular strength and SMM compared with men ( Brady et al., 2014 ; Hughes et al., 2001 ). Resistance training (RT) is a well-recognized method of exercise for increasing muscular strength and hypertrophy, and thus

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Jeremy P. Loenneke


Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is characteristic of aging and is associated with morbidity and mortality, independent of age. Research demonstrates that lower extremity muscular strength is associated with mobility, morbidity and mortality; however, no study, to our knowledge, had examined the association between lower extremity muscular strength and LTL, which was the purpose of this brief study.


Data from the 1999–2002 NHANES was used (N = 2410; 50–85 years). Peak isokinetic knee extensor strength (IKES) was objectively measured with LTL assessed from a blood sample.


After adjustments, for every 50 N increase in IKES, participants had a 9% reduced odds (P = .04) of being in the 1st (vs. 4th) LTL quartile.


Lower extremity muscular strength is associated with LTL, suggesting a possible mechanism through which lower extremity muscular strength may be associated with morbidity and mortality.

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Jeffrey A. Woods, Russell R. Pate, and Maria L. Burgess

Field tests of upper body muscular strength and endurance (UBMSE) are often administered to children, but little is known about the determinants of performance on these tests. Therefore the purpose of this investigation was to examine potential determinants of performance on several common field tests of UBMSE including pull-ups, flexed-arm hang, push-ups, and two types of modified pull-ups. Subjects were 56 girls and 38 boys, ages 9 to 11 years. Potential determinants assessed were age, height, weight, gender, % fat, physical activity, and laboratory measures of muscular strength and endurance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the laboratory measures of UBMSE failed to account for significant fractions of variance in performance on four of the five tests. However, % fat was significantly associated with performance on four of five tests. These results indicate that factors other than muscular strength and endurance account for most of the variance in performance, and that % fat appears to be a particularly important determinant of performance.

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker, and Matthew D. Vukovich

.7** , * 36.5 ± 0.9** 44.1 ± 0.8** , *  male 44.2 ± 0.9 44.6 ± 0.8 47.4 ± 1.0** 48.6 ± 1.0** 48.1 ± 1.0** 48.9 ± 0.9** Note . Values are reported as mean ±  SE . VO 2 peak = peak oxygen consumption. * p  = .06 between control and protein for females. ** p  < .05 compared with baseline. Muscular Strength The

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Troy Blackburn, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Meredith A. Petschauer, and William E. Prentice


To determine whether proprioception or muscular strength is the dominant factor in balance and joint stability and define what type of ankle rehabilitation is most effective for these purposes.


The University of North Carolina Sports Medicine Research Laboratory.


Thirty-two healthy volunteers free of head injury, dominant leg injury, and vestibular deficits.


Subjects were divided into control, strength-training, proprioceptive-training, and strength-proprioception combination training groups. Balance was assessed before and after 6-week training programs.


Static, semidynamic, and dynamic balance were assessed.


Subjects showed no improvement for static balance but improved significantly for semidynamic (P = .038) and dynamic (P = .002) balance. No significant differences were observed between groups.


Enhancement of proprioception and muscular strength are equally effective in promoting joint stability and balance maintenance. In addition, no 1 type of training program is superior to another for these purposes.