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Emma Hoffman, Abrianna D’Onofrio, Shelby Baez and Julie Cavallario

Kinesio Tape is an elastic tape that is designed to relieve pain and provide musculoskeletal support. 23 Previous literature has examined the influence of Kinesio Tape on kinesiophobia in patients with musculoskeletal pain. 24 , 25 Due to the interconnectedness between pain intensity and kinesiophobia

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Suzanne G. Leveille, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield and Jack M. Guralnik

The authors examined the relationship between musculoskeletal pain, self-efficacy, attitudes and beliefs about exercise, and physical activity in 75- to 85-year-old adults. Participants rated their pain during the preceding month in their back, hips, knees, and feet on a scale of 0 to 10. Pain was categorized by number of sites of moderate to severe pain. Among the 325 participants, 42.8% reported at least moderate pain in at least 1 site. Having more pain sites was associated with younger age, lower income, depressed mood, and poorer self-rated health. Participants with more pain sites scored lower on exercise attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy, but the self-efficacy scale was most strongly associated with physical activity. Participants with 2–4 pain sites and low self-efficacy were >4 times as likely to be sedentary as those with no pain and high self-efficacy. These findings suggest that improving self-efficacy for exercise might be an important component of programs to increase physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley and Marcelo C. Silva

to explore how physical activity and exercises impact LBP in the long-term, during the postpartum period. Strength and Limitations Observational studies have previously been carried out as an attempt to determine the influence of an active lifestyle on the development of musculoskeletal pain in

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Amy Chaffee, Mariel Yakuboff and Tomomi Tanabe

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Rumit S. Kakar, Hilary B. Greenberger and Patrick O. McKeon

with baseline. Moderate decrease in pain was also observed with MT on VAS (mean difference = 0.84 cm; Hedges’ g  = −0.32; 95% CI, −1.20 to 0.56) (Figure  2 ). The taping conditions were not able to achieve MCID of 30 mm/3 cm for musculoskeletal pain using VAS. 23 Figure 2 Effect size plots with 95

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Kazuhiro Harada, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka and Yoshio Nakamura

This study aimed to examine the association of muscle-strengthening activity with knee and low back pain, falls, and health-related quality of life among Japanese older adults. A cross-sectional survey targeted 3,000 people. The response rate was 52% and 208 respondents did not meet the inclusion criteria. Therefore, 1,351 individuals were analyzed. Muscle-strengthening activity (exercise using equipment and body weight, lifestyle activities), knee and low back pain, falls over the past year, health-related quality of life (SF-8), and potential confounders were assessed. Individuals engaging in exercise using body weight and lifestyle activity (≥ 2 days/week) were more likely to have knee pain. Engaging in exercise using equipment and body weight was associated with higher scores of general health. These results indicate that exercise using equipment and body weight might have a positive effect on health-related quality of life, but muscle-strengthening activities are associated with knee pain in older people.

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Taina Rantanen, Pertti Era, Markku Kauppinen and Eino Heikkinen

This study analyzes the associations of socioeconomic status (SES), health, and physical activity with maximal isometric strength in 75-year-old men (n = 104) and women (n = 191). Maximal isometric strength was measured with dynamometers; the forces were adjusted using body weight. The maximal forces for women varied from 66% (trunk flexion) to 73% (knee extension) of those of the men. SES was not associated with muscle force. For men the trunk forces and elbow flexion force correlated negatively with the number of chronic diseases, index of musculoskeletal pain, and self-rated health. For women all the strength test results correlated with self-rated health; the other health indicators showed significant correlation with trunk extension force only. For both sexes the physically more active exhibited greater strength. The index of musculoskeletal symptoms explained the variance on trunk force factor in both sexes. It was concluded that a higher level of everyday physical activity and good values in the state-of-health indicators were the most important variables explaining greater strength among the elderly.

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Sheila A. Dugan, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Kelly Karavolos, Barbara Sternfeld, Deidre Wesley and Lynda H. Powell

Background:

This study was done to determine whether physical activity at baseline is independently associated with musculoskeletal pain and fulfilling one’s physical role over 3 subsequent years.

Methods:

Our research involved a 3-year longitudinal study of over 2400 community-dwelling, midlife women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Measurements included baseline physical activity using the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan Activity Survey and SF-36 role-physical and bodily pain indices at each of 3 annual follow-up visits.

Results:

Each 1-point increase on the physical activity score was associated with a 7% greater likelihood of a high role-physical score (95% CI = 1.02– 1.13) and a 10% greater likelihood of a low bodily pain score (95% CI = 1.04–1.17) after adjusting for age, race, menopausal status, educational level, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and chronic medical conditions. The association between physical activity level and role-physical score was eliminated in the fully adjusted model after adjustment for pain level in post hoc analysis [OR = 1.04 (95% CI = 0.98–1.09)].

Conclusion:

This study demonstrates that women who are more physically active at midlife experience less bodily pain over time regardless of menopausal status, sociodemographics, and medical conditions. Higher physical activity level positively impacts fulfilling one’s physical role; however, this is mediated by pain level.

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Maureen I. Ogamba, Kari L. Loverro, Natalie M. Laudicina, Simone V. Gill and Cara L. Lewis

During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain.

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Alison R. Valier, Ryan S. Averett, Barton E. Anderson and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

Clinical Scenario:

Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint and is often associated with shoulder impingement. The annual incidence of shoulder pain is estimated to be 7% of all injuries, and is the third-most-common type of musculoskeletal pain. Initial treatment of shoulder impingement follows a conservative plan and emphasizes rehabilitation programs as opposed to surgical interventions. Shoulder rehabilitation programs commonly focus on strengthening the muscles of the shoulder complex and, more specifically, the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is a primary dynamic stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint, using both eccentric and concentric contractions. The posterior rotator cuff, including teres minor and infraspinatus, works eccentrically to decelerate the arm during overhead throwing. Exercises to strengthen the rotator cuff and the surrounding dynamic stabilizers of the shoulder girdle vary and include activities such as internal and external rotation, full-can lifts, and rhythmic stabilizations. Traditionally, shoulder rehabilitation programs have focused on isotonic concentric contractions. Common strengthening exercises typically involve movements that result in shortening the muscle length while simultaneously loading the muscles. However, recent attention has been given to eccentric exercises, which involve lengthening of the muscle during loading, for the treatment of a variety of different tendinopathies including those of the Achilles and patellar tendons. The eccentric, or lengthening, motion is thought to be beneficial for people who are involved in activities that place eccentric stress on their shoulder, such as overhead throwers. Based on studies related to the Achilles tendon, eccentric exercise may positively influence the tendon structure by increasing collagen production and decreasing neovascularization. The changes that occur as a result of eccentric exercises may improve function, strength, and performance and decrease pain more than concentric programs, producing better patient outcomes. Although eccentric strength training has been shown to provide strength gains, there are no clear guidelines as to the inclusion of this form of exercise training in shoulder rehabilitation programs for the purposes of improving function and decreasing pain.

Focused Clinical Question:

Does adding an eccentric-exercise component to the rehabilitation program of patients with shoulder impingement improve shoulder function and/or decrease pain?