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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

metabolic efficiency following immobility ( Eijnde et al., 2001 ). A survey of 145 athletes demonstrated only 34% considered supplementation to improve musculoskeletal tissue repair (e.g., chondroitin, glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane, omega-3 fatty acids; Malinauskas et al., 2007 ). In similar surveys

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Lyle J. Micheli

The majority of injuries in exercising children affect the musculoskeletal system. These injuries result from two mechanisms: single, acute macrotrauma or repetitive microtrauma. The injuries resulting from repetitive microtrauma—overuse injuries—appear to be occurring with increased frequency in this age group. A number of risk factors for overuse injury from exercise have been identified, including training error, muscle imbalance, anatomic malalignment, footwear, surface, nutritional factors, and cultural factors. The development of scientific criteria for exercise prescription in this age group that will enhance fitness and avoid injury awaits techniques for noninvasive assessment of musculoskeletal tissue fitness. In the interim, many of these injuries can be prevented or decreased in severity by slow progression of exercise intensity and qualified adult supervision.

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

observed a reduction in testosterone levels of 10% to 15% after a sleep restriction protocol for 5 hours per night during 1 week in healthy men, thus demonstrating that sleep deprivation can negatively influence the musculoskeletal tissue. Being that the quantity and quality of sleep interfere in

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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

 al., 2017 ). Interestingly, dietary proline and HC are both incorporated into the skin of rats ( Matsuda et al., 2006 ); however, HC is preferentially incorporated into musculoskeletal tissues including muscle, cartilage, and bone ( Oesser et al., 1999 ). Furthermore, supplementing with HC has been shown to

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Keith Baar

injured tendon has yet to be demonstrated. On top of the positive effects of loading on tendon health, we have recently shown that nutrition can positively affect collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal tissues ( Shaw et al., 2017 ). Briefly, we demonstrated that supplementing with 15 g of gelatin, 1 h

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

Impairment of musculoskeletal tissues can result from a wide array of traumatic, degenerative, and inflammatory events that affect a substantial number of people. 1 For example, in 2011, 33.2% of the population in the United States had some documented musculoskeletal-related disease, which

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Joseph M. Stock, Ryan T. Pohlig, Matthew J. Botieri, David G. Edwards and Gregory M. Dominick

from less metabolically active musculoskeletal tissues (e.g., the forearm) to the muscles in the legs ( Joyner & Casey, 2015 ; Korthuis, 2011 ). Moreover, during intense exercise, active muscle blood flow can increase 20-fold compared to rest ( Korthuis, 2011 ). Thus, the decrease in blood flow to non

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

, exoskeletons could improve task economy, 10 enhance strength and functional ability, 11 , 12 lower biomechanical loads and associated injury risks, 13 or protect healing musculoskeletal tissues during recovery from trauma or orthopedic surgery. Though some existing shoulder exoskeletons are powered (eg