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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul, and Dustin L. Crouch

Musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder are often painful and disabling. 1 , 2 A variety of activities and conditions may cause shoulder disorders, including repetitive, overhead, and high-load tasks, 3 – 6 trauma, 7 and degenerative diseases such as rotator cuff tear. 8 The prevalence of

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Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair, and Siobhán O’Connor

inherent risk of musculoskeletal injury. 5 Musculoskeletal injuries are defined as injuries resulting from direct trauma or overuse that are sustained during sports participation. 6 Injuries are common in male adolescent Gaelic footballers. Recent research reported that one third of all players sustain

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Laura Seidl, Danijel Tosovic, and J. Mark Brown

Whole muscle mechanomyography (MMG) has gained considerable interest in recent years for its ability to noninvasively determine muscle contractile properties (ie, contraction time [Tc], half-relaxation time [1/2Tr], and maximal displacement [Dmax)]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of two fairly novel MMG transducers: a laser-displacement sensor (LDS) and contact-displacement sensor (CDS). MMG was conducted on the rectus femoris muscle of 30 healthy individuals on 4 separate occasions. Test-retest reliability was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Both sensors were reliable for time-derived parameters Tc (ICCs, 0.85–0.88) and 1/2Tr (0.77–0.89), with Dmax identified as the most reproducible parameter (0.89–0.94). The 2 sensors produced similar Tc and Dmax measures, although significant (P < .05) systematic bias was identified with the CDS recording higher mean values, on average. However, these differences may not be considered clinically significant. The wide limits of agreement identified between 1/2Tr measures (–19.0 ms and 25.2 ms) are considered unreliable from a clinical perspective. Overall, MMG demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability for the assessment of muscle contractile properties with no significant differences identified between sessions, thus further validating its applicability as a noninvasive measure of muscle contractile properties.

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Kazunori Hase, Motoshi Kaya, Amy B. Zavatsky, and Suzanne E. Halliday

Rowing ergometers can be found in most gyms and fitness centers, but many people who use them regularly have little or no instruction in rowing technique. It is not known whether nonrowers who regularly practice ergometer rowing are at risk of musculoskeletal problems. This study was done to quantify the differences in kinematics, kinetics, and musculoskeletal loading of competitive rowers and nonrowers during ergometer rowing. An experiment was performed to collect kinematic, external force, and EMG data during er-gometer rowing by 5 university-level competitive rowers and 5 nonrowers. Kinematic and external force data were input to a 3-D whole-body musculo-skeletal model which was used to calculate net joint forces and moments, muscle forces, and joint contact forces. The results showed that competitive rowers and nonrowers are capable of rowing an ergometer with generally similar patterns of kinematics and kinetics; however, there are some potentially important differences in how they use their legs and trunk. The competitive rowers generated higher model quadriceps (vastus) muscle forces and pushed harder against the foot cradle, extending their knees more and their trunks less than the nonrowers during the drive phase. They also had higher contact forces at the knee and higher peak lumbar and knee flexion moments. The ratio of average peak vastus force to average peak erector spinae force in the experienced rowers was 1.52, whereas it was only 1.18 in the nonexperienced rowers.

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Emma Hoffman, Abrianna D’Onofrio, Shelby Baez, and Julie Cavallario

Clinical Scenario Patients who develop pain following musculoskeletal injury are susceptible to biopsychosocial impairments. 1 These biopsychosocial impairments can negatively affect long-term outcomes, including decreases in health-related quality of life and physical activity levels. 1 – 3 A

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Claire C. Murchison, Avery Ironside, Lila M.A. Hedayat, and Heather J.A. Foulds

, 10 Musculoskeletal fitness is an umbrella term encompassing muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscular power, and flexibility. 14 , 15 Musculoskeletal fitness is negatively associated with morbidity, all-cause mortality, and obesity, particularly among adults. 14 , 16 – 21 Many methods exist

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Amy R. Barchek, Shelby E. Baez, Matthew C. Hoch, and Johanna M. Hoch

physical activity is musculoskeletal injury including injuries to the knee 5 – 7 and ankle. 8 Most often subjective measures of physical activity have been utilized in these populations, including the Tegner activity scale 9 and the Marx activity scale. 10 However, most recently objective measures of

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Nicola Relph and Katie Small

this novel within-competition data collection method to appreciate the dynamic nature of musculoskeletal physiology. Ultra-distance running events continue to increase in popularity. 1 The distance of these events is greater than 26.2 miles, with total running times typically over 6 hr, occurring over

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Jennifer L. Ostrowski, Alexa Beaumont, and Emily Dochterman

Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK US) is attractive as an imaging test because it is fast, safe, inexpensive, widely available, and noninvasive. 6 , 8 – 10 For suspected rotator cuff pathology, MSK US has been shown to have high accuracy as compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 11 – 13 ; however, its

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Stefan Sebastian Tomescu, Ryan Bakker, Tyson A.C. Beach, and Naveen Chandrashekar

Musculoskeletal simulations of high-impact movements are being increasingly utilized to gain insight into body dynamics, injury mechanisms, and tissue loading. 1 – 3 Conducting these simulations involves collecting body marker and force platform data, calculating joint moments, and computing