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David G. Behm, Nehara Herat, Gerard M.J. Power, Joseph A. Brosky, Phil Page, and Shahab Alizadeh

Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of a decrement in quality of life. 1 Musculoskeletal pain usually presents with a loss of function and is categorized differently based on the client’s complaints and the duration of symptoms. 2 The treatment methods for musculoskeletal pain vary

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Garrick N. Forman and Michael W.R. Holmes

% reported experiencing some level of musculoskeletal (MSK) discomfort. Ramos et al. ( 2005 ) also investigated the effects of children’s computer and video game usage on discomfort. Participants recruited for this study were between the ages of 6 and 13 years old (mean age of 9.5 years). Most participants

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Victoria A. Parr, Marie L. Pettitt, Ryan Krzyzanowicz, Sarah Krzyzanowicz, and Riana R. Pryor

that the studies answered “Yes” to ≥10 of the 12 questions of the checklist, indicating the studies were of high quality. Clinical Bottom Line There is weak evidence to suggest that compensated turnout, but not anatomical or functional turnout, is related to lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul, and Dustin L. Crouch

Musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder are often painful and disabling. 1 , 2 A variety of activities and conditions may cause shoulder disorders, including repetitive, overhead, and high-load tasks, 3 – 6 trauma, 7 and degenerative diseases such as rotator cuff tear. 8 The prevalence of

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Laura Seidl, Danijel Tosovic, and J. Mark Brown

Whole muscle mechanomyography (MMG) has gained considerable interest in recent years for its ability to noninvasively determine muscle contractile properties (ie, contraction time [Tc], half-relaxation time [1/2Tr], and maximal displacement [Dmax)]). The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of two fairly novel MMG transducers: a laser-displacement sensor (LDS) and contact-displacement sensor (CDS). MMG was conducted on the rectus femoris muscle of 30 healthy individuals on 4 separate occasions. Test-retest reliability was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Both sensors were reliable for time-derived parameters Tc (ICCs, 0.85–0.88) and 1/2Tr (0.77–0.89), with Dmax identified as the most reproducible parameter (0.89–0.94). The 2 sensors produced similar Tc and Dmax measures, although significant (P < .05) systematic bias was identified with the CDS recording higher mean values, on average. However, these differences may not be considered clinically significant. The wide limits of agreement identified between 1/2Tr measures (–19.0 ms and 25.2 ms) are considered unreliable from a clinical perspective. Overall, MMG demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability for the assessment of muscle contractile properties with no significant differences identified between sessions, thus further validating its applicability as a noninvasive measure of muscle contractile properties.

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Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair, and Siobhán O’Connor

inherent risk of musculoskeletal injury. 5 Musculoskeletal injuries are defined as injuries resulting from direct trauma or overuse that are sustained during sports participation. 6 Injuries are common in male adolescent Gaelic footballers. Recent research reported that one third of all players sustain

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Xavier D. Thompson, Thomas M. Newman, Catherine C. Donahue, Nicholas K. Erdman, Siobhan M. Statuta, and Jacob E. Resch

balance metrics when available. 3 Though a large of amount of research has addressed clinical recovery following a diagnosed SC, the length of physiological recovery has yet to be determined in human models. 4 One purported consequence of SC is an increased risk of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries

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Kazunori Hase, Motoshi Kaya, Amy B. Zavatsky, and Suzanne E. Halliday

Rowing ergometers can be found in most gyms and fitness centers, but many people who use them regularly have little or no instruction in rowing technique. It is not known whether nonrowers who regularly practice ergometer rowing are at risk of musculoskeletal problems. This study was done to quantify the differences in kinematics, kinetics, and musculoskeletal loading of competitive rowers and nonrowers during ergometer rowing. An experiment was performed to collect kinematic, external force, and EMG data during er-gometer rowing by 5 university-level competitive rowers and 5 nonrowers. Kinematic and external force data were input to a 3-D whole-body musculo-skeletal model which was used to calculate net joint forces and moments, muscle forces, and joint contact forces. The results showed that competitive rowers and nonrowers are capable of rowing an ergometer with generally similar patterns of kinematics and kinetics; however, there are some potentially important differences in how they use their legs and trunk. The competitive rowers generated higher model quadriceps (vastus) muscle forces and pushed harder against the foot cradle, extending their knees more and their trunks less than the nonrowers during the drive phase. They also had higher contact forces at the knee and higher peak lumbar and knee flexion moments. The ratio of average peak vastus force to average peak erector spinae force in the experienced rowers was 1.52, whereas it was only 1.18 in the nonexperienced rowers.

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Emma Hoffman, Abrianna D’Onofrio, Shelby Baez, and Julie Cavallario

Clinical Scenario Patients who develop pain following musculoskeletal injury are susceptible to biopsychosocial impairments. 1 These biopsychosocial impairments can negatively affect long-term outcomes, including decreases in health-related quality of life and physical activity levels. 1 – 3 A

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Kelly M. Cheever, W. Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Michael Sitler, and Ryan T. Tierney

Perception surrounding contact sport participation has historically been impacted by both the potential effects of repetitive musculoskeletal injuries and exposure to head impacts leading to decreased long-term quality of life. 1 Observed correlations between head impacts and resultant increases