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Brandon J. Shad, Janice L. Thompson, James Mckendry, Andrew M. Holwerda, Yasir S. Elhassan, Leigh Breen, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Gareth A. Wallis

exercise, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates remain elevated for approximately 24 hr before returning to basal levels ( Burd et al., 2011 ; Damas et al., 2016 ). Furthermore, a relatively low volume (∼three sets) of resistance exercise appears to maximize postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis

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Heitor O. Santos, Gederson K. Gomes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Erick P. de Oliveira

. The limited current evidence suggests that egg yolk intake seems to enhance acute increases on myofibrillar protein synthesis, but these effects do not seem to translate into improved muscle mass, at least in young men. That said, this conclusion is based on very limited evidence and more studies are

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Oliver C. Witard, Laurent Bannock, and Kevin D. Tipton

.G. , Potvin , J.R. , Baker , S.K. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2010 ). Resistance exercise volume affects myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation in young men . The Journal of Physiology, 588 ( 16 ), 3119 – 3130 . 10

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Andrew M. Holwerda, Jorn Trommelen, Imre W.K. Kouw, Joan M. Senden, Joy P.B. Goessens, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Lex B. Verdijk, and Luc J.C. van Loon

ingestion may have a delayed impact (>3 hr) on stimulating muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates at rest and during postexercise recovery. Our research group has demonstrated that presleep casein protein ingestion and resistance-type exercise increase myofibrillar protein synthesis during

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Ando Pehme, Karin Alev, Priit Kaasik, and Teet Seene

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of compensatory hypertrophy (CH), heavy-resistance exercise training (HRET), and simultaneous CH and HRET on fast-twitch skeletal-muscle myofibrillar-protein synthesis, myosin heavy-chain (MHC) turnover rate, and MHC-isoform composition in young and old rats. In young animals all treatments intensified myofibrillar-protein synthesis, whereas in old animals with CH protein synthesis remained unchanged. The relative content of MHC I and IID in plantaris muscle increases with age, and the relative content of MHC IIB decreases. HRET and simultaneous CH and HRET decreased the proportion of MHC IIB and IIA and increased that of MHC IID in young rat muscle. In old rat muscle, relative content of MHC IID decreased and that of MHC IIB increased. CH decreased relative content of MHC IIB in both age groups and of MHC IIA in old animals. Relative content of MHC IID increased in both groups, and of MHC IIA, in young animals. MHC in plantaris of young rats turned over much faster in all types of mechanical loading but in old rats only during HRET and its combination with CH.

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson, and Katharine E. Reed

performed correlational analyses between changes in fiber cross-sectional area after 10 weeks of RET and acute measures of myofibrillar protein synthesis. Importantly, myofibrillar protein synthesis was assessed over a 24-hr time course at three time points during the RET: pretraining, at 3 weeks of

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Oliver C. Witard, Arny A. Ferrando, and Stuart M. Phillips

.K. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2014 ). Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: A double-blind, randomized trial . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99 ( 2 ), 276 – 286 . doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.068775 10.3945/ajcn.113

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy, and Thierry Bernard

until voluntary fatigue to maximally promote muscle protein synthesis. In the latter study, a leg extension exercise completed at either 90% or 30% of one-repetition maximum until volitional failure immediately followed by the ingestion of 15-g whey protein increased myofibrillar protein synthesis

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

the W6 + High-Leu consumption resulted in a similar MPS response to the consumption of 25 g of whey protein ( Churchward-Venne et al., 2014 ). Figure  2 shows the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis in the 0–4.5 hr period reported by Churchward-Venne et al. in the W25, W6 + High-Leu, and W25

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

outcomes given that glycogen concentrations did not affect myofibrillar protein synthesis. In relation to the reactivation of p70S6K activity in the recovery period from exercise, it is noteworthy that we previously observed that the sustained presence of reduced CHO (and energy availability) and/or high