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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

preserving healthy independent living for a longer period of time, while at the same time improving their performance of activities of daily living ( Janssen, 2011 ). Recently, it has been shown that skeletal muscle is able to release into the systemic circulation proteins called myokines ( Iizuka, Machida

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Yasmeen Mezil, J. Obeid, Sandeep Raha, Thomas J. Hawke and Brian W. Timmons

, Schrauwen P , Kersten S . Identification of human exercise-induced myokines using secretome analysis . Physiol Genomics . 2014 ; 46 ( 7 ): 256 – 67 . PubMed ID: 24520153 doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00174.2013 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00174.2013 24520153 13. Eliakim A , Nemet D , Most G

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

secretion of several myokines, hormones (including testosterone), and transcription factors which are associated with synthesis protein and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. 20 – 23 Although the mechanisms are not known in ILWHA, the results of this study show some acute benefits of combined exercise, as low

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

the up-regulation of cytokines and myokines, and reduce the circulatory exposure of the tissue to inflammatory cells following exercise seems intuitive. As such, if the temperature of treatment remains physiologically favorable, then duration of exposure can be extended. It is unknown to what extent

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

-inflammatory activities of IL-6 . Int J Biol Sci . 2012 ; 8 ( 9 ): 1237 – 1247 . PubMed doi:10.7150/ijbs.4989 23136552 10.7150/ijbs.4989 38. Pedersen BK . The diseasome of physical inactivity—and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk . J Physiol . 2009 ; 587 ( 23 ): 5559 – 5568 . PubMed doi:10

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

of myokines, hypoxia and adipocyte inflammation, and leukocyte adhesion molecules. The favorable effects on several of these factors appear to be more distinct in response to high-intensity compared with low-intensity exercise training in adolescents with obesity. Although debatable, based on the

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Ademar Avelar, Witalo Kassiano, João Pedro Nunes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Andreo F. Aguiar, Michele C.C. Trindade, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

substance appears to directly affect muscle protein synthesis via modulations of components in the mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway ( Farshidfar et al., 2017 ). Cr supplementation may directly affect the myogenic process by altering secretions of myokines (e.g., myostatin and insulin-like growth

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Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik and Markus Tilp

.06.003 27337690 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.06.003 12. Gmiat A , Micielska K , Kozlowska M , et al . The impact of a single bout of high intensity circuit training on myokines’ concentrations and cognitive functions in women of different age . Physiol Behav . 2017 ; 179 : 290 – 7 . PubMed ID: 28687176 doi:10

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

localized myokines. Neutrophil action is implicated in free radical proliferation and secondary damage formation. 18 , 19 Evidence indicates that complex interactions between local and systemic factors are needed to stimulate healing and remodeling of skeletal muscle following IIMD. To date, understanding

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Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

. Eur J Clin Invest . 2017 ; 47 ( 8 ): 600 – 611 . PubMed ID: 28722106 doi:10.1111/eci.12781 10.1111/eci.12781 28722106 9. Benatti FB , Pedersen BK . Exercise as an anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatic diseases-myokine regulation . Nat Rev Rheumatol . 2015 ; 11 ( 2 ): 86 – 97 . PubMed ID