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Alfredo Bravo-Sánchez, Pablo Abián, Filipa Sousa, Fernando Jimenez, and Javier Abián-Vicén

is performed on the skin using a probe, and parameters such as tone, elasticity, and stiffness can be obtained ( Ditroilo, Watsford, Murphy, & De Vito., 2011 ). The stiffness values measured with the myotonometer, which have been defined as the tissue capacity to maintain its initial shape against a

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Derek N. Pamukoff, Sarah E. Bell, Eric D. Ryan, and J. Troy Blackburn

Context:

Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress.

Objective:

To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS.

Design:

Descriptive laboratory study.

Setting:

Laboratory

Participants:

33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg).

Main Outcome Measures:

Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product–moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique.

Results:

The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061).

Conclusions:

The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.

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Sebastian Klich, Bogdan Pietraszewski, Matteo Zago, Manuela Galli, Nicola Lovecchio, and Adam Kawczyński

Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate supraspinatus tendon thickness, acromiohumeral distance (AHD), and stiffness/creep measures of the shoulder girdle in overhead asymptomatic athletes in muscle fatigue conditions. Design: Observational, case series study. Setting: Biomechanics and motion analysis lab. Participants: Twenty-four male overhead volleyball (n = 8), handball (n = 8), and tennis (n = 8) athletes. All subjects were without shoulder injury history. Main Outcome Measure: The subjects were tested for supraspinatus tendon thickness (in short and long axis), AHD using ultrasound scans and stiffness/creep of upper trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior and posterior deltoid, and pectoralis major using the myotonometer device before and immediately after a fatigue protocol. Intervention: The fatigue protocol consisted of 3 sets of 32 maximum isokinetic concentric contractions performing shoulder internal and external rotation at isokinetic speed of 120°/s. Results: A significant increase in supraspinatus tendon thickness (both in short and long axis) (P = .045 and P = .01, respectively) and a reduction in AHD (P = .01) were found after an isokinetic protocol. The stiffness increased significantly in upper trapezius (P ≤ .01), infraspinatus (P = .003), posterior deltoid (P = .047), and pectoralis major (P = .01), whereas the creep showed a significant decrement for upper trapezius (P = .001) and infraspinatus (P = .003). Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the postexercise fatigue in overhead athletes. The increase of stiffness (reduction of muscle creep) and tendon thickness (simultaneous to the reduction of AHD) may indicate rotator cuff overloading as a primary intrinsic tendon pathology process.

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Original Research Report The Use of a Dynamic Elastomeric Fabric Orthosis in Supporting the Management of Athletic Pelvic and Groin Injury Leanne Sawle * Jennifer Freeman * Jonathan Marsden * 5 2016 25 2 101 110 10.1123/jsr.2014-0266 The Myotonometer: Not a Valid Measurement Tool for Active

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong, and Jack P. Callaghan

, 39 A myotonometer measures the resistance of a tissue to an impulse force applied to the overlying skin and quantifies stiffness based on the damped natural oscillation response of the tissue. 40 , 41 This technique is reliable in measuring stiffness of the lumbar erector spinae in back

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Nilüfer Kablan, Nuray Alaca, and Yaşar Tatar

. PubMed ID: 28817412 doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000485 28817412 11. Nair K , Masi A , Andonian B , et al . Stiffness of resting lumbar myofascia in healthy young subjects quantified using a handheld myotonometer and concurrently with surface electromyography monitoring . J Bodyw Mov Ther