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Daniel J. Davies, Kenneth S. Graham and Chin Moi Chow


The use of daytime napping as a recovery tool following exercise is virtually unexplored. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of daytime nap sleep following endurance training in an athletic population, and to appraise the optimal circadian timing of the nap and the time interval between training and the nap.


Six physically trained male subjects (22.5 ± 2.4 y) performed four separate standardized 90-min endurance training sessions followed by a 90-min daytime nap either 1 or 2 h after training (time interval), commencing at either 10:30 or 11:30 (circadian timing). During the nap, sleep was monitored using polysomnography. Subjective measurements of sleep quality, alertness and preparedness to train following a nap were recorded using a visual analog scale.


The duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly greater during the 11:30 naps (13.7 ± 9.0 min) compared with the 10:30 naps (6.9 ± 8.8 min) (P = .049). There was no significant difference in SWS duration between a 1-h (10.6 ± 10.2 min) or 2-h (10.0 ± 9.0 min) time interval between training and the nap (P = .82). No other sleep variables differed significantly according to circadian timing or time interval.


Recovery naps commenced later in the morning contain more SWS than earlier naps. The data imply that daytime naps have a potential role as a valuable recovery tool following endurance exercise, given the suggested energy restorative functions of SWS.

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

one-month-olds and generally decreasing to about 45 minutes in three- to five-month-olds. Before seven months of age, no observable patterns of daytime naps could be detected, but between 8–12 months of age, daytime naps frequently develop into two distinct nap periods during the day ( Mindell et

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

debt and sleepiness in the training and competition environment is a daytime nap. 2 – 4 Napping has been defined as a sleep period of less than 50% of an individual’s average nocturnal sleep duration. 5 – 7 Although well documented in the training setting, 4 , 8 at present, there is no research to

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

training and academic commitments. Daytime napping may offer a viable alternative to assuage the effects of chronic sleep restriction. The research in support of napping for improved performance is well documented in the literature in areas of cognition, health, motor performance, and motor memory

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

. Napping could be an efficient countermeasure to alleviate the consequences of nocturnal sleep deprivation. 1 , 7 – 12 An increased body of literature treated the effect of napping on athletic performances. Waterhouse et al 1 first addressed the question and reported that a 30-minute nap opportunity

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Gloria E. Napper-Owen

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of induction assistance beyond the year of participation. Two second-year teachers mentored by the researcher in their first year of teaching participated. Changes in teacher process behaviors were analyzed, and emergent themes from the first year of teaching were examined to determine relevancy in the second year. The results indicated that both teachers spent more time in management during the second year observations than at the end of the first year of teaching to help achieve program outcomes for responsible movement. A shift in the amount of time in instructional behaviors indicated students were receiving more feedback while engaged in practice opportunities. The teachers indicated less difficulty in planning developmentally appropriate lessons and more confidence in their teaching. The beginning teachers felt more secure in their teaching abilities and engaged in new teaching strategies that enhanced their professional development.

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Gloria E. Napper-Owen and D. Allen Phillips

The purpose of this study was to provide induction assistance to beginning physical education teachers and to investigate the impact of the assistance on the teachers. Two beginning physical educators who were employed at an elementary and a middle school participated in this study. The data were collected by weekly observations, videotape analysis, interviews, and field notes. A case narrative was compiled for each participant according to the emergent themes in each teacher’s case. The results indicated that continued supervision had a positive impact on first-year teachers. The visitations offered the opportunity to receive regular feedback and support so that the teachers began to plan age-appropriate activities, became more efficient managers in the classroom, and increased their instructional feedback. The induction assistance encouraged accountability to the knowledge attained in the teacher preparation program, in addition to making the teachers more reflective and analytical about their teaching.

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Gloria E. Napper-Owen, Susan K. Kovar, Kathy L. Ermler and Joella H. Mehrhof

Physical educators from randomly selected high schools (N = 180) in the AAHPERD Central District were surveyed via telephone regarding their required (9th grade) physical education programs. Four researchers scored the 180 instruments, and each instrument was scored independently with a 96% inter-rater reliability. For the entire sample, 52% of the activity units were team sports, 39% individual sports, 4% dance-gymnastics, and 4% adventure-cooperative-recreational. Of the 180 schools, 71% conducted programs in compliance with Title IX. Of the teachers interviewed, 88% of the females and 30% of the males taught outside their socially accepted areas, although they tended to conduct similar curricula. In general, schools delivered traditional multi-activity programs emphasizing team and lifetime sports, while 25% of the schools had programs with a primary emphasis on competitive, contact, male-oriented team activities. Thus, curricula tended to perpetuate the current socially constructed view of gender and physical activity.

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Danae Dinkel, Dipti Dev, Yage Guo, Emily Hulse, Zainab Rida, Ami Sedani and Brian Coyle

Improving the child care environment is a promising venue to increase physical activity levels and potentially prevent chronic diseases. 8 The Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Go NAP SACC) is one existing evidence-based program for improving health outcomes through physical

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

such as relaxation. The scheduling of competitions is not directly modifiable but can be anticipated with daytime naps (see below) or delayed recovery sessions on the following day. Training schedules, especially early morning training, are also common factors that might lead to reduced sleep duration