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A Review of Sedentary Behavior Assessment in National Surveillance Systems

Danielle L. Harvey, Karen Milton, Andy P. Jones, and Andrew J. Atkin

questionnaires used for national surveillance of sedentary behavior in adults and (2) identify the types of sedentary behaviors being measured in these questionnaires. Methods The methods and findings from surveillance systems are not typically published in the peer-reviewed literature. As such, rather than

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Physical Activity in Iran: Results of the Third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD-2007)

Alireza Esteghamati, Omid Khalilzadeh, Armin Rashidi, Mandana Kamgar, Alipasha Meysamie, and Mehrshad Abbasi

Background:

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the patterns and demographic correlates of physical activity in Iran.

Methods:

The data collected through the third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) on 4120 adults were studied. Physical activity was assessed by the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) in domains of work, commuting and recreation. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high activity categories. Total physical activity (TPA) was calculated using metabolic equivalents (MET).

Results:

40% of Iranian adults (31.6% of men and 48.6% of women) belonged to the low physical activity category. The median value of TPA was 206 (342 in men and 129 in women) MET-minutes/day. Physical activity at work, commuting and recreation contributed to 71%, 20% and 9% of TPA, respectively. Approximately 15% of Iranian adults (4.7 million people) do not have any physical activity in any of the 3 studied domains.

Conclusions:

Physical inactivity is common in Iran, particularly in females and in the older age groups. Preventing a rapid growth of conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases requires health programs with more focus on physical activity.

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U.S. Physical Activity Para Report Card for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Heidi Stanish, Samantha M. Ross, Byron Lai, Justin A. Haegele, Joonkoo Yun, and Sean Healy

group of researchers with diverse expertise in adapted physical activity and experience analyzing U.S. national surveillance data. The task of creating and publishing this para report card involved identifying the best available population-based data sources to inform grades on the 10 PA indicators from

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Surveillance of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Youth and Adults in the United States: History and Opportunities

John D. Omura, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Tiffany J. Chen, Eric T. Hyde, Emily N. Ussery, Kathleen B. Watson, and Susan A. Carlson

decreasing response rates of traditional surveys used in several national surveillance systems. 19 While cell phone technology may negatively impact survey response rates, data derived from cell phones (eg, fitness-tracking app records, activity records collected through passive monitoring) may provide

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Expert Appraisal of the 2022 Canadian Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Nicholas Kuzik, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Maeghan E. James, Rebecca L. Bassett-Gunter, Daniela Ruttle, Pinder DaSilva, Katerina Disimino, Christine Cameron, Mike Arthur, Keiko Shikako, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

to limit the participation of Canadian children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD) in PA ( Martin Ginis et al., 2016 ). For almost two decades, the ParticipACTION Report Card on PA for Children and Youth has been disseminated across Canada. Using available data from national surveillance and

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Results From South Korean 2022 Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Jeongmin Lee, Kitaek Oh, Jihee Min, Seon-Young Goo, Eun-Young Lee, Kyoung June Yi, Jinmoo Heo, Joon-Sung Lee, Dong-il Kim, Wonsang Shin, Kwon-il Kim, Yeonsoo Kim, and Justin Y. Jeon

behaviors among CAWD. Grading of PA behavioral indicators was based on national surveillance data. However, a huge discrepancy between grades of government and PA behavior indicators is noted. There are two main reasons for the high grade for the South Korean government on PA promotions. First, a change in

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The GoPA! Second Set of Country Cards Informing Decision Making for a Silent Pandemic

Andrea Ramírez Varela and Michael Pratt

national survey. Periodic national surveillance of physical activity was less common in low-income countries compared with middle- and high-income countries. Since the 1950s, 175 (80.6%) countries had at least 1 peer-reviewed research publication. However, large inequities were seen with more than a 50

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Association Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Occupation Activity Level, National Health Interview Survey—United States, 2020

Jasmine Y. Nakayama, Miriam E. Van Dyke, Tyler D. Quinn, and Geoffrey P. Whitfield

supports this contention. For example, a relatively higher level of physical inactivity during leisure time has been highlighted as a potential health problem among Hispanic or Latino adults in the United States, but previous national surveillance using device-based measures of total PA (accelerometer

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Australia and Other Nations Are Failing to Meet Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children: Implications and a Way Forward

Leon Straker, Erin Kaye Howie, Dylan Paul Cliff, Melanie T. Davern, Lina Engelen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Jenny Ziviani, Natasha K. Schranz, Tim Olds, and Grant Ryan Tomkinson

Background:

Australia has joined a growing number of nations that have evaluated the physical activity and sedentary behavior status of their children. Australia received a “D minus” in the first Active Healthy Kids Australia Physical Activity Report Card.

Methods:

An expert subgroup of the Australian Report Card Research Working Group iteratively reviewed available evidence to answer 3 questions: (a) What are the main sedentary behaviors of children? (b) What are the potential mechanisms for sedentary behavior to impact child health and development? and (c) What are the effects of different types of sedentary behaviors on child health and development?

Results:

Neither sedentary time nor screen time is a homogeneous activity likely to result in homogenous effects. There are several mechanisms by which various sedentary behaviors may positively or negatively affect cardiometabolic, neuromusculoskeletal, and psychosocial health, though the strength of evidence varies. National surveillance systems and mechanistic, longitudinal, and experimental studies are needed for Australia and other nations to improve their grade.

Conclusions:

Despite limitations, available evidence is sufficiently convincing that the total exposure and pattern of exposure to sedentary behaviors are critical to the healthy growth, development, and wellbeing of children. Nations therefore need strategies to address these common behaviors.

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Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ): Nine Country Reliability and Validity Study

Fiona C. Bull, Tahlia S. Maslin, and Timothy Armstrong

Purpose:

Instruments to assess physical activity are needed for (inter)national surveillance systems and comparison.

Methods:

Male and female adults were recruited from diverse sociocultural, educational and economic backgrounds in 9 countries (total n = 2657). GPAQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were administered on at least 2 occasions. Eight countries assessed criterion validity using an objective measure (pedometer or accelerometer) over 7 days.

Results:

Reliability coefficients were of moderate to substantial strength (Kappa 0.67 to 0.73; Spearman's rho 0.67 to 0.81). Results on concurrent validity between IPAQ and GPAQ also showed a moderate to strong positive relationship (range 0.45 to 0.65). Results on criterion validity were in the poor-fair (range 0.06 to 0.35). There were some observed differences between sex, education, BMI and urban/rural and between countries.

Conclusions:

Overall GPAQ provides reproducible data and showed a moderate-strong positive correlation with IPAQ, a previously validated and accepted measure of physical activity. Validation of GPAQ produced poor results although the magnitude was similar to the range reported in other studies. Overall, these results indicate that GPAQ is a suitable and acceptable instrument for monitoring physical activity in population health surveillance systems, although further replication of this work in other countries is warranted.