. Moreover, viewing neighborhood types as separate spatial entities enables their further characterization by the addition of environmental features. The research questions were as follows: (a) Do neighborhood types in an urban structure differ in the proportions of people reporting destinations in nature
Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen and Erja Portegijs
Pierre-Olaf Schut and Antoine Marsac
nature: la « première ». Parfois cataloguée comme un record par assimilation aux normes du champ sportif, 2 cette performance a des spécificités qui permettent de mieux comprendre les fondements de ces activités. A partir de l’analyse des conditions de production et de valorisation d’une première, nous
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt
media (eg, under isolated competitions when women outperform male competitors). The sex difference in performance is highly cited over several decades, predominantly in sports measured objectively by time (eg, running and swimming), centimeters, and kilograms. However, elite athletes by their nature are
Helen C. Wright and David A. Sugden
The nature of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in a selected group of Singaporean children (n = 69) aged 6-9 years was investigated by two methods: an intergroup comparison of children with DCD and matched controls (n = 69), and an intragroup study on the same children with DCD in the search for subtypes within this group. The results from the two approaches demonstrate that while the children with DCD are clearly different from the control subjects, the difficulties seen within the DCD group are not common to all the children. Four identifiable subtypes were found within the children with DCD. This more specific information gained about the difficulties children with DCD experience is not easily established from the intergroup analysis, suggesting that the design of future intervention studies should incorporate differences found in subtypes of children with DCD.
Chris Gibbs and Richard Haynes
This article uses the phenomenological method to explain how Twitter has changed the nature of sport media relations. The research was based on semistructured interviews with 18 Canadian and U.S. sport media professionals having an average 16 yr of experience. This exploratory study uses the lived experience of sport media professionals to identify 3 clusters that help explain how Twitter has changed the nature of sport media relations: media landscape, “mechanical” job functions, and sport media relations. The results of this research are significant because they help explain how the practices and norms related to the role of sport media relations are changing as a result of Twitter. This research presents a new argument: that Twitter has flattened the sport hierarchy and could be considered the most influential social-media platform in sport today.
Lawrence R. Brawley, Albert V. Carron and W. Neil Widmeyer
Much of the contemporary research and practical literature in sport and psychology that concerns goals focuses on individuals. Several reviewers, however, have called for more investigation into group goal setting. To accomplish this, a basic understanding of the everyday goals of sport teams is necessary. The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of group goals in intact sport teams. Athletes (N=154) from college and community teams (N=13) were asked to list up to five team goals for both practice and competitive situations. Content analyses showed that the overwhelming majority were general (>70%) rather than specific in nature. For practice situations, process goals predominated (89.9%), but for competitions, a balance existed between outcome (53.1%) and process (46.9%) goals. Further analyses of the practice goals showed that 66.1% related to skill/strategy, 29.3% to effort, and 4.6% to fitness. For the competition goals, 43.5% related to skill/strategy, 15.0% to effort, and 41.5% to outcomes. Implications of these results for practitioners and researchers are discussed.
Eryk P. Przysucha, M. Jane Taylor and Douglas Weber
This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length revealed one significant interaction as older, unaffected boys swayed more than all other groups (p < .01). As a group, boys with DCD displayed smaller anterior-posterior (p < .01) and area of sway (p < .01). Analysis of relative time spent in the corrective phase (p < .002) revealed that boys with DCD spent 54% under feedback control while boys without DCD spent 78%. This was attributed to reduced proprioceptive sensitivity, as confirmed by significant differences between the groups (p < .009) in spectral analysis of peak frequency of sway.
Eryk P. Przysucha and Brian K.V. Maraj
The nature of intra- and interlimb (bimanual) coordination was examined in ten boys with (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.0) and without DCD (M = 10.8 years, SD = .9) in a two-handed catching task. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) caught significantly fewer balls (MDCD = 56%, SD = 17.6 vs. MnoDCD = 93%, SD = 7.5), and both groups solved the “degrees of freedom problem” differently at intralimb level of coordination. Typically developing children coupled and decoupled the respective spatial relations, whereas the majority of children with DCD segmented their actions. At interlimb level, both groups exhibited a comparable degree of spatial symmetry. However, individual profiles also showed that children with varying degrees of movement issues exhibited movement patterns that were qualitatively and functionally diverse. Overall, in the context of previous research on interlimb coordination it appears that spatial, in addition to temporal organization, may be jeopardized in at least some children with DCD.
Eric MacIntosh and Matthew Walker
This study adopted an organizational culture perspective to examine the values and beliefs within fitness club operations and determine their influence on employees’ job satisfaction and intention to leave an organization. Consideration was also given to subcultures based on geographical location, organizational type, and job function to examine the ways in which organizations and employees may differ. Data were collected at three urban cities in Canada during a major fitness conference and tradeshow. The results from 438 employees confirmed the multidimensionality of the seven-factor instrument, in addition to illustrating the influence on job satisfaction and intention to leave. Further, the results revealed several dimensions were perceieved differently with respect to subculture. Findings connote the transient nature of jobs in the fitness industry which remains an immediate concern for managers in this field.
Anthony Bouillod, Julien Pinot, Flavien Soenen, Theo Ouvrard and Frederic Grappe
To analyze the effect of the pedaling activity in different 4-min time trials (TT4s) (laboratory and field conditions) and compare TT4 and maximal aerobic power (MAP) determined from the classical incremental exercise test in laboratory. It was hypothesized that the exercises performed on the field would determine higher physical (power output [PO]) and mental involvements due to different environmental conditions.
Sixteen male cyclists underwent an incremental test to exhaustion and 3 TT4s under different conditions: cycle ergometer (CE), level ground (LG), and uphill (UP).
Correlation was observed for PO with a trivial effect size and narrow limits of agreement between MAP and CE TT4 (r = .96, P < .001). The comparison between the CE, LG, and UP tests indicates that PO was significantly higher in UP than in CE (+8.0%, P < .001) and LG (+11.0%, P < .001).
The results suggest that PO depends on the nature of the pedaling activity. Moreover, PO under CE TT4 is a relevant predictor of MAP. It seems important to measure MAP by taking into account the cycling conditions, considering that coaches and scientists use this parameter to assess the aerobic potential of athletes and determine the exercise intensities useful for monitoring adaptation to training.