Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 66 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Robyn L. Bowen, J. Harold Adams and Kathryn H. Myburgh

Purpose:

A 29-year-old elite adventure-race athlete presented with a 10-month history of nausea appearing during or after ultraendurance races. The athlete noted recent worsening of symptoms, including lightheadedness, dark rings under the eyes, and weakness as nausea became worse, and was unable to complete races. Possible diagnoses included dehydration or over hydration, renal damage, and gastrointestinal malfunction.

Methods:

The subject (S) and a case-control athlete (C) performed an 11-hour simulated race (field test) ending in the laboratory. Blood samples were drawn, and body mass and food and drink ingested were noted at regular intervals.

Results:

Symptoms were replicated in S, whose vomitus contained undigested solids consumed during exercise. Over 11 hours, fl uid loss was similar in S (9.6 L) and C (10.3 L), but fluid intake for S was 4.8 L versus 9.9 L for C. Body mass decreased 6% in S and 1.8% in C. S presented with elevated serum urea and creatinine before and after and elevated osmolality after the field test. A week after the fi eld test, creatinine clearance was low in S but not C (83 vs 160 mmol per 24-hour urine, respectively). S was instructed to increase fluid intake throughout the day, to match fluid lost during training, and to refrain from long races. After 2 months, his serum urea, creatinine, and osmolality were normal, and creatinine clearance improved to 133 mmol per 24-hour urine. He repeated the fi eld test and experienced no nausea.

Conclusions:

Nausea in ultraendurance athletes might be an early symptom of chronic but reversible renal strain or insensitivity to high osmolality.

Restricted access

Kristin J. Stuempfle, Martin D. Hoffman and Tamara Hew-Butler

Context:

Gastrointestinal (GI) distress is common during ultrarunning.

Purpose:

To determine if race diet is related to GI distress in a 161-km ultramarathon.

Methods:

Fifteen (10 male, 5 female) consenting runners in the Javelina Jundred (6.5 loops on a desert trail) participated. Body mass was measured immediately prerace and after each loop. Runners reported if they had nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and/or diarrhea after each loop. Subjects were interviewed after each loop to record food, fluid, and electrolyte consumption. Race diets were analyzed using Nutritionist Pro.

Results:

Nine (8 male, 1 female) of 15 runners experienced GI distress including nausea (89%), abdominal cramps (44%), diarrhea (44%), and vomiting (22%). Fluid consumption rate was higher (p = .001) in runners without GI distress (10.9 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · hr−1) than in those with GI distress (5.9 ± 1.6 ml · kg−1 · hr−1). Runners without GI distress consumed a higher percentage fat (p = .03) than runners with GI distress (16.5 ± 2.6 vs. 11.1 ± 5.0). In addition, fat intake rate was higher (p = .01) in runners without GI distress (0.06 ± 0.03 g · kg−1 · hr−1) than in runners with GI distress (0.03 ± 0.01 g · kg−1 · hr−1). Lower fluid and fat intake rates were evident in those developing GI distress before the onset of symptoms.

Conclusions:

A race diet with higher percentage fat and higher intake rates of fat and fluid may protect ultramarathoners from GI distress. However, these associations do not indicate cause and effect, and factors other than race diet may have contributed to GI distress.

Restricted access

Martin D. Hoffman and Kevin Fogard

Purpose:

Despite increased 161-km ultramarathon participation in recent years, little is known about those who pursue such an activity. This study surveyed entrants in two of the largest 161-km trail ultramarathon runs in North America to explore demographic characteristics and issues that affected race performance.

Methods:

All entries of the 2009 Western States Endurance Run and the Vermont 100 Endurance Race were invited to complete a postrace questionnaire.

Results:

There were 500 respondents among the 701 race entries (71.3% response). Finish time was found to have a significant (P <.01) negative association with training volume and was generally directly associated with body mass index. Among nonfinishers, the primary reason for dropping out was nausea and/or vomiting (23.0%). Finishers compared with nonfinishers were more likely (P <.02) to report blisters (40.1% vs 17.3%), muscle pain (36.5% vs 20.1%), and exhaustion (23.1% vs 13.7%) as adversely affecting race performance, but nausea and/or vomiting was similar between groups (36.8% vs 39.6%). Nausea and/or vomiting was no more common among those using nonsteroidal anti-infammatory drugs (NS AIDs), those participating in the event with higher ambient temperatures, those with a lower training volume, or those with less experience at finishing 161-km races. Overall use of NSAIDs was high, and greater (P = .006) among finishers (60.5%) than nonfinishers (46.4%).

Conclusions:

From this study, we conclude that primary performance-limiting issues in 161 -km ultramarathons include nausea and/or vomiting, blisters, and muscle pain, and there is a disturbingly high use of NSAIDs in these events.

Restricted access

Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

and flatulence: 30 mm). No other symptoms were reported. During the MSUM, while following a low-FODMAP diet, minor bloating and flatulence continued, but moderate to severe level of nausea during rest and running was experienced, peaking on Days 4 and 5 (Figure  1 ). No other symptoms were reported

Restricted access

Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

4 5 6 7 8 9 10  Defecation   normal consistency 0 10   abnormal loose stools consistency 0 10   diarrhea 0 10   bloody stools 0 Other GIS  nausea 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  dizziness 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  stitch (acute transient abdominal pain) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Note . 1–4 indicative of mild GIS

Open access

David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

time points of the experimental trial (Figure  1 ). We concluded that BD split into two 0.35 g/kg boluses elicited maximal D-βHB concentration and minimal side effects compared with BD given as a single, larger bolus of 0.5 or 0.7 g/kg, which tended to result in nausea, euphoria, and dizziness. Figure

Restricted access

Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

discomfort, total GIS (summative score), upper and lower GIS, and nausea scores were not different between trials ( p  > .05). Breath H 2 from the samples taken during exercise was 1.0 ± 0.7 ppm, regardless of the trial. During the postexercise period, no main effect of trial ( p  = .347) or time ( p

Restricted access

R. Mitchell Todd, Michelle Cleary and J. Susan Griffith

We present the case of an adolescent female collegiate distance runner competing in her first 6K race. She presented with multiple systemic symptoms of dizziness, nausea, confusion, muscle cramping, and syncope. The patient was immediately treated for heat stroke and, on follow-up, reported to the AT with a headache, lack of appetite, muscle aches, and dark-colored urine. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered following a heat illness event with necessary treatments performed immediately. Symptomatic patients must be referred to a physician for evaluation and laboratory testing. We present recommendations for a supervised return-to-participation protocol and acclimatization to safely return to competition readiness.

Restricted access

John G. Seifert, Greg L. Paul, Dennis E. Eddy and Robert Murray

The effects of preexercise hyperinsulinemia on exercising plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and metabolic responses were assessed during 50 min cycling at 62% VO2max. Subjects were fed a 6% sucrose/glucose solution (LCHO) or a 20% maltodextrin/glucose solution (HCHO) to induce changes in plasma insulin. During exercise, subjects assessed perceived nauseousness and lightheadedness. By the start of exercise, plasma glucose and plasma insulin had increased. In the LCHO trial, plasma glucose values significantly decreased below the baseline value at 30 min of exercise. However, by 40 min, exercise plasma glucose and insulin values were similar to the baseline value. Exercise plasma glucose and insulin did not differ from baseline values in the HCHO trial. Ingestion of LCHO or HCHO was not associated with nausea or lightheadedness. It was concluded that the hyperinsulinemia induced by preexercise feediigs of CHO did not result in frank hypoglycemia or adversely affect sensory or physiological responses during 50 min of moderate-intensity cycling.

Restricted access

Alice K. Lindeman

Meeting the energy demands of ultraendurance cycling requires careful planning and monitoring of food and fluid intake. This case study presents the nutrient intake of a cyclist while training for and competing in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM). Carbohydrate accounted for 65% of the calories consumed during training (4,743 kcal), 75% during 24-hr races (10,343 kcal), and 78% during RAAM (8,429 kcal). Gastrointestinal complaints during RAAM included nausea, feeling of fullness, and abdominal distension. Although probably exacerbated by sleep deprivation, these problems were all diet related. Based on this experience, it appears that by controlling the carbohydrate concentration of beverages, limiting dietary fiber, and relying on carbohydrate as the primary energy source, one could both control gastrointestinal symptoms and promote optimal performance in training and in ultramarathon cycling.