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Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

, 2013 ; Stevens et al., 1996 ). There is currently a lack of research on need thwarting among peers in sport, particularly among youth with physical disabilities. It is important to consider both the need-supporting and need-thwarting peer behaviors in sport environments within underrepresented youth

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Tao Zhang, Melinda A. Solmon, Maria Kosma, Russell L. Carson and Xiangli Gu

Using self-determination theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships among perceived need support from physical education teachers (autonomy support, competence support, and relatedness support), psychological need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. Participants were 286 middle school students in the southeastern U.S. They completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good fit with the data (RMSEA = .08; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; GFI = .96). Need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between need support and physical activity. The constructs of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness represent the nutriments that facilitate students’ intrinsic motivation and ultimately positively predict students’ physical activity. The findings supported the theoretical tenets of self-determination theory.

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Lydia G. Emm-Collison, Martyn Standage and Fiona B. Gillison

Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents’ perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents’ perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

efficacy support, as well as relational support. In this case, we would suggest labeling autonomy support as need support instead. To be need supportive means that the provider gives meaningful rationales and supplies information about options ( Williams, Cox, Kouides, & Deci, 1999 ) to encourage

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Leen Haerens, Nathalie Aelterman, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer, Bart Soenens and Maarten Vansteenkiste

According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement.

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

volunteers ( Trudel & Gilbert, 2006 ) and what would be considered acceptable as part of a full-time job becomes problematic when coaches perceive their volunteer role as too demanding. Finally, as the absence of need-support does not mean the coach uses need-thwarting styles ( Bartholomew et al., 2011

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

motivation. In a longitudinal investigation of exercise adherence, Duda et al. ( 2014 ) showed that perceptions of need support provided by health and fitness advisors at the end of a 3-month exercise program were positively linked to exercisers’ psychological need satisfaction at 3 months. The latter

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Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson

behavioral experiences. With the goal of understanding how PE teachers may encourage student motivation and physical activity outcomes, much of the research within this body of literature has been guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). SDT and Need Support

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Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen

sequence ( Fortier, Duda, Guerin, & Teixeira, 2012 ; Grouzet, Vallerand, Thill, & Provencher, 2004 ; Vallerand, 1997 ; Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997 ; Vallerand & Losier, 1999 ) the SDT process model of coach need-support influence on sport participation and adaptive outcomes was created (see Figure

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Lynn Van den Berghe, Isabel B. Tallir, Greet Cardon, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens

Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers’ need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers’ causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students’ (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed.