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Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

also support individual’s need for relatedness by providing quality social relationships ( Keegan et al., 2010 ; Kentta & Corban, 2014 ). Need-thwarting behaviors have been associated with controlling coaching styles ( Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, Ryan, & Thogersen-Ntoumani, 2011 ), which may lead to

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Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis, Richard M. Ryan and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani

Research in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) has shown that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in sport contexts is associated with enhanced engagement, performance, and well-being. This article outlines the initial development of a multidimensional measure designed to assess psychological need thwarting, an under-studied area of conceptual and practical importance. Study 1 generated a pool of items designed to tap the negative experiential state that occurs when athletes perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to be actively undermined. Study 2 tested the factorial structure of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. The supported model comprised 3 factors, which represented the hypothesized interrelated dimensions of need thwarting. The model was refined and cross-validated using an independent sample in Study 3. Overall, the psychological need thwarting scale (PNTS) demonstrated good content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender, sport type, competitive level, and competitive experience. The conceptualization of psychological need thwarting is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding the use of the PNTS in research pertaining to the darker side of sport participation.

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Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent

the psychological need thwarting scale ( Bartholomew et al., 2011 ) was used to measure BPNT. This questionnaire consists of 11 items measuring thwarting of basic psychological needs for competence (e.g., “There are situations where I am made to feel inadequate,” α = .81); autonomy (e.g., “I feel

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

identified additional evidence supporting that teachers’ autonomous motivation within the classroom coaching setting is positively associated with their need-supportive interpersonal behaviors ( Van den Berghe et al., 2014 ), while controlled motivation is associated with need-thwarting behaviors ( Van den

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

-Ntoumani, 2009 , 2010 ). In the present study, we designed an observation scale aligned with this perspective. Making a Case for Need-Indifferent Behaviors Our scale includes items that represent need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviors of exercise instructors (see Hancox, Quested, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen

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Daniel Wixey, Knud Ryom and Kieran Kingston

players became almost unattainable. Psychological need thwarting is a term to describe actions or behaviours that contribute to or directly reduce the satisfaction of an individual’s basic needs ( Ntoumanis, 2012 ). Basic psychological needs theory, a subtheory of self-determination theory, proposes

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

motivation is facilitated by need-thwarting social environments through frustrating the basic psychological needs. Therefore, the students may experience high or low levels of need satisfaction and need frustration as well as controlled or autonomous motivation at the same time. Ratelle et al. ( 2007

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

of one’s basic psychological needs is strongly associated with psychological health and well-being, whereas a need-thwarting environment is believed to lead to the frustration of basic psychological needs and an increased risk of psychological maladaptation ( Vansteenkiste & Ryan, 2013 ). Whereas

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), whereas they would exhibit increases in disengagement if they experienced increases in psychological need thwarting (i.e., control, incompetence, and rejection). Increases in psychological need satisfaction and thwarting were expected to be predicted by initial levels of perceived teacher autonomy support

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Daniel J. Brown, Rachel Arnold, Martyn Standage and David Fletcher

& Ryan, 2000 ; Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). A central tenet of BPNT is that psychological need satisfaction is nurtured and maintained via environments that are need supportive ( Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). Similarly, environments that are controlling or need thwarting can result in need frustration (cf. Bartholomew