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Andre Koka and Heino Sildala

relationships with students’ maladaptive outcomes. Specifically, Hein and co-workers found that dimensions of perceived controlling behavior such as negative conditional regard and intimidation, but not controlling use of praise and excessive controlling behavior from teachers, had significant positive

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Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani

This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards, conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.

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Sofie Morbée, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens

well via material rewards (i.e., controlling use of rewards); interfering in areas of athletes’ lives that are not directly associated with sports (i.e., excessive personal control); and withholding attention and appreciation if athletes fail to meet expectations (i.e., negative conditional regard

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Daniel Milton, Paul R. Appleton, Anna Bryant and Joan L. Duda

), which tapped teachers’ controlling use of rewards (e.g., “My teacher mainly used rewards/praise to make pupils complete all the tasks he or she set during class”), negative conditional regard (e.g., “My teacher paid less attention to pupils if they displeased him or her”), intimidation (e

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Nikos Ntoumanis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Daniel F. Gucciardi and Derwin King Chung Chan

. Controlling style Athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s controlling use of rewards (e.g., “My coach tries to motivate me by promising to reward me if I do well”), negative conditional regard (e.g., “My coach is less supportive of me when I am not training and competing well”), intimidation (e.g., “My coach

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Doug Cooper and Justine Allen

’ perspective 1   Uses extrinsic rewards 0   Relies on intimidation 0   Demonstrates negative conditional regard 0   Uses overt personal/physical control 0  Ego involving Punishes mistakes 0   Emphasizes/recognizes inferior/superior performance and ability 0   Encourages inter/intragroup rivalry 0  Relatedness