We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of sport scandal on consumer attitudes toward a range of sport stakeholders. We examined the effects of fans’ social identity (fan of scandalized team vs. fan of rival team), scandal severity (single perpetrator vs. multiple perpetrators), and the sponsor brand’s response to the scandal (sponsorship retention vs. termination) on consumers’ attitudes toward the implicated team, the scandal perpetrators, the sport, and sponsor brand. We find evidence of differential reactions to scandal reflecting social identity, such that fans support their own team despite increased scandal severity but negatively judge a rival team’s transgressions. Results suggest that where fans are concerned, sponsors may be better served to continue with a sponsorship following scandal than to terminate, even for some forms of severe scandal. However, termination may receive more positive evaluation from rival team fans; hence continuation of sponsorship needs to accompany a tempered approach.
P. Monica Chien, Sarah J. Kelly and Clinton S. Weeks
Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner
particularly strong in older adults ( Li, Cheng, & Fung, 2014 ). This finding can be attributed to the so-called positivity effect: In comparison with younger adults, older adults pay relatively more attention to positive information than to negative information ( Charles, Mather, & Carstensen, 2003 ; Kennedy
Samuel Y. Todd, Marshall Magnusen, Damon P. S. Andrew and Tony Lachowetz
Realistic job previews (RJPs) occur when both positive and negative information about a job is presented to a potential applicant. Because job seekers in the sport industry sometimes target opportunities based upon their personal affection for particular sports/sport organizations, the presentation of realistic information about the actual work could be key. The purpose of this two study, quasi-experimental research design was to examine the effect of RJPs on job seekers’ levels of attraction to sport job openings, perceptions of person-job fit, and job acceptance intentions. Study 1 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and attraction to the job changed after the job seeker encountered realistic information. Study 2 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and perceived job fit changed after encountering an RJP where perceived prestige was a factor. Thus, RJPs appear to influence the attractiveness, acceptability, and perceived fit of a job opening in sport.
Christopher J. Beedie, Damian A. Coleman and Abigail J. Foad
The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 × 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32–2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects’ belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research.
publicity, people are often exposed to a large variety of celebrities along with a plethora of positive and negative information about these celebrities, simultaneously and repetitively, through a range of communication platforms. Due to this information overload, people may easily forget specific
Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann
,740 followers; Wiesenhof: no official social-media page as of April 9, 2018). However, negative conversations are generally more influential than positive conversations and can often be vicious ( Bebbington, MacLeod, Ellison, & Fay, 2017 ; Stieglitz & Dang-Xuan, 2013 ). Furthermore, negative information is
Reynold W.L. Lee, Andy C.Y. Tse and Thomson W.L. Wong
attentive to negative information ( Wood & Kisley, 2006 ). Another potential reason may be the “face” concept in older adults in the Chinese culture; face (mien-tzu) means a kind of prestige that is generally emphasized in Asia, especially China: “a reputation achieved through getting on in life, through
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue
of specific negative information but remain as favorable memories associated with flow experiences ( Jackson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999 ). H4 : Enhanced flow experiences formed through iTeam ID and emotion-evoking events positively influence spectators’ future revisit intentions and WOM recommendation
Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French
less time (e.g., reduced life span in older age) protecting this valued resource by focusing more on emotionally satisfying goals. To maintain emotional balance, and not waste time, older adults may therefore be more motivated to ignore negative information ( Löckenhoff & Carstensen, 2004 ). Focusing
Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris and Noora J. Ronkainen
processing of negative information is seen as one of the active ingredients in maintaining attentional resources on the causes and implications of one’s depressive symptoms. This negative processing of information then subsequently increases and maintains depressed mood, as well as impairs effective problem