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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue

negative emotions (e.g., fear and anxiety) for fans may counterintuitively augment fans’ flow experience ( Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 ; Jackson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999 ). This phenomenon is particularly related to spectators with a high iTeam ID, considering their cumulative and repetitive experiences with

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Hairul A. Hashim, Golok Freddy, and Ali Rosmatunisah


The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia.


The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.


The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects.


The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.

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Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet, and Benoit Louvet

clubs, the activation of a superordinate social identity (e.g.,  we were all soccer players ) would theoretically lead players to feel less negative emotions (NE) toward their opponents, as they are considered to be part of the same category. In contrast, a salient categorization at the level of club

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

hedonic connotations. The general category of positive emotions reflects feelings and words associated with positive judgements (e.g., happy, good) and is composed of 261 words. The general category of negative emotions (e.g., hate, anger) is composed of 345 words that are associated with negative

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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

reflected failure [CORFing]; Wann & Branscombe, 1990 ; basking in reflected failure; Campbell, Aiken, & Kent, 2004 ) that sport fans may use when their favorite team loses. While feeling negative emotions and experiencing identity threat as a result of a loss by one’s favorite team has been well

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Sarah Deck, Brianna DeSantis, Despina Kouali, and Craig Hall

do not have the resources to deal with these stressors, they are likely to experience negative emotions. Athletes report experiencing a number of emotions during competition, such as joy, serenity, relief, hope, disappointment, and pride ( Martinent & Ferrand, 2015 ). Emotions have been widely

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Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker, and Cara Gray

Attributions and Emotions Dancers reported having intense negative emotions, such as frustration, isolation, and diminished self-worth around their injury and inability to perform. Dancers demonstrated self-blame by responding to injury with questions such as, “What did I do wrong? or “How could I have done

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Ece Bekaroglu and Özlem Bozo

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between attachment styles, emotion regulation strategies, and their possible effects on health-promoting behaviors among those who participate (N = 109) versus those who do not participate in extreme sports (N = 202). Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Different nonadaptive emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles and health-promoting behaviors in two groups of the current study. In the extreme sports group, lack of awareness about emotions and lack of goals while dealing with negative emotions mediated the relationship between anxious attachment style and health-promoting behaviors; and lack of goals while dealing with negative emotions mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment style and health-promoting behaviors. In participants who do not engage in extreme sports, lack of clarity about emotions mediated the relationship between anxious attachment style and health-promoting behaviors. Findings and their implications were discussed in the light of the literature.

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Patrick R. Thomas and Ray Over

Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with performance in golf were established through ratings provided by 165 men with golf handicaps ranging from 5 to 27. Several components of skilled performance in golf were identified through factor analysis of these ratings, followed by comparisons between lower handicap and higher handicap players. Skilled golfers (those with lower handicaps) reported greater mental preparation, a higher level of concentration when playing golf, fewer negative emotions and cognitions, greater psychomotor automaticity, and more commitment to golf. Three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills and tactics, psychomotor skills, and golf involvement) were developed from the data. Contexts in which these scales can be used are discussed.

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Natalie Skinner and Neil Brewer

The influence of negative emotions such as anxiety on athletes’ preparation and performance has been studied extensively. The focus of this review is on more adaptive approaches to competition such as the experience of positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. Evidence on the antecedents and adaptive consequences of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for research and practice in a sport context are suggested. We focus on the cognitive appraisal of challenge as a significant antecedent of both positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. A theoretical model of beneficial and harmful perceptions of emotion is presented which incorporates appraisals of challenge, coping expectancies, and valence (positive vs. negative) of emotion. Research that supports the model is reviewed, and implications for research, coaching, and training in the sport context are suggested.