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John B. Bartholomew and Sherri L. Sanders

faculty as a zero-sum game or negotiation. That is, any positive for the faculty member is a loss for the chair and vice versa. This inevitably raises the emotional investment of both parties and makes it much more difficult to find a solution. This approach might reflect a simple disagreement, where

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and K. Andrew R. Richards

create a “secondary vector” ( Doyle, 1986 , p. 420) or alternative objective. This can occur when, rather than complete instructional tasks in congruence with teachers’ directions, students modify them. These modifications are often the product of negotiations between teachers and students ( Wahl

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Heidi Grappendorf, Cynthia M. Veraldo, Annemarie Farrell, and AJ Grube

. Explanations for the disparity between the salaries for men and women are undeniably numerous and complex. However, the process of negotiation and the ways men and women experience the process have been areas of focus for researchers. Negotiation is the process of social interactions between parties where

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

momentum are altered. Such changes can lead to inappropriate or uneducational goals becoming the focus of lessons, or facilitate attention to more appropriate and relevant goals. The actions that students take to cause shifts in lesson direction and momentum include negotiations with their teachers to

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Deborah S. Baxter

recommendations by which the preparation of PCTs to teach physical education could be improved. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the patterns of negotiation engaged in by PCTs and their students during a physical education early field experience (EFE). The specific research questions we

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

and enhance the instructional and managerial systems ( Griffin et al., 1998 ; Jones, 1992 ; Wahl-Alexander & Curtner-Smith, 2015 ; Zmudy et al., 2009 ). The nature and effectiveness of all four systems within the ecological paradigm can be shaped or changed as a result of negotiation that occurs

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Nikolaus A. Dean

personal narratives with Erving Goffman’s ( 1959 ) presentation of self theory. Through this application, I attempt to analyze and make sense of the (re)negotiation of my athletic identity due to the formidable impacts of sustaining a sport-related concussion (SRC). As Brewer, Van Raalte, and Linder ( 1993

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Rachel I. Roth and Bobbi A. Knapp

Female athletes often negotiate their meanings of femininity and athleticism due to restrictive cultural norms, with muscularity at the center of this negotiation. Using a critical feminist interactionist perspective, this study seeks to understand how female collegiate athletes negotiate their meanings of muscularity and femininity within the strength and conditioning environment. Negotiation strategies emerged from the data, including the gendered body and the weight room environment. The findings suggest that while the strength and conditioning coach is responsible for training athletes in power and speed, they must do so within the cultural context that often attempts to limit women’s physicality.

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Sharon R. Guthrie, T. Michelle Magyar, Stephanie Eggert, and Craig Kain

Researchers have extensively documented gender differences in negotiation perceptions and performance which, in turn, may contribute to the persistence of salary and workplace inequity between women and men. The purpose of this study was to determine if these differences existed among a sample of 228 athletes (women n = 151 and men n = 77) who had competed in sport at high school, competitive club, college, or through professional levels for 15 years. More specifically, gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation were investigated in order to determine whether the three factors associated with the Babcock, Gelfand, Small, and Stayn (2006) Propensity to Initiate Negotiation Model (i.e., recognition of opportunity, sense of entitlement, and apprehension) explained and mediated such differences. Propensity to initiate negotiation (PIN) was operationally defined as self-reported responses to a series of hypothetical negotiation scenarios, as well as recent and anticipated future negotiation experiences. Females reported significantly more negotiation apprehension than males; they did not differ, however, in their recognition of opportunities and sense of entitlement associated with negotiation. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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Marcos R. Kunzler, Emmanuel S. da Rocha, Maarten F. Bobbert, Jacques Duysens, and Felipe P. Carpes

Background:

In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise.

Methods:

Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups.

Results:

Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active.

Conclusion:

Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.