innovation, this paper brings the tenets of Actor Network Theory to bear on current debates in the field of SDP, and explores its utility for ongoing analyses. The paper proceeds in six parts. In the next section, we discuss two tensions in recent SDP research that signify to us the need for new approaches
Simon C. Darnell, Richard Giulianotti, P. David Howe and Holly Collison
Catherine Quatman and Packianathan Chelladurai
As an emerging research approach, social network theory and analysis has been embraced and effectively applied in disciplines that have overlapping interests with sport management researchers including such fields as organizational behavior and sport sociology. Although a number of sport management scholars have investigated network-related concepts, to date no sport management studies have fully utilized the analytical tools that social network theory and analysis have to offer. In conjunction with a discussion about the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives associated with network analysis, this article uses several examples from the sport management and organizational behavior bodies of literature to illustrate a number of the advantageous techniques and insights social network theory and analysis can offer. These examples are meant to provide a general understanding of the utility and applicability of the social network theory and analysis and potentially inspire sport management researchers to adopt a social network lens in their future research endeavors.
Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du
subgroups, theoretically, may include both psychological affiliations and interpersonal relationships. In the present study, we utilized the social identity approach ( Tajfel & Turner, 1979 ; Turner, 1985 ) and network theory ( Borgatti & Halgin, 2011 ) to examine how both identification and social
Matthew Katz, Nefertiti A. Walker and Lauren C. Hindman
analysis of gendered leadership networks within the NCAA is guided by network theory and a network approach to leadership. Network Theory The growing popularity of network studies within and outside of sport management signals increased recognition that understanding individual outcomes requires
Michael L. Naraine
meant by the network paradigm, as that provides the basis to understand and compare network concepts such as centrality. The network paradigm consists of two theoretical arms: the theory of networks and network theory proper ( Borgatti & Halgin, 2011 ). In the theory of networks, the concern is both the
Michael L. Naraine and Milena M. Parent
The purpose of this study was to examine national sport organizations’ (NSOs’) social networks on Twitter to explore followership between users, thereby illuminating powerful and central actors in a digital environment. Using a stratified, convenience sample, followership between the ego (i.e., NSO) and its alters (i.e., stakeholders) were noted in square, one-mode sociomatrices for the Fencing Canada (381 × 381) and Luge Canada (1026 × 1026) networks on Twitter. Using social network analysis to analyze the data for network density, average ties, Bonacich beta centrality, and core–periphery structure, the results indicate fans, elite athletes, photographers, competing sport organizations, and local clubs are some of the key stakeholders with large amounts of power. Though salient users, such as sponsors and international sport federations, are also present in the network core, NSOs seem better able to increase visibility of their content by targeting smaller scale users. The findings imply managers may wish to reflect upon how these advantaged users can be incorporated into their social communication strategies and how scholarship should continue examining followership as well as content in online settings.
Maurice Vergeer and Leon Mulder
international players who have followers from the club they are playing for but also from their home country. As a result they accumulate multiple audiences and thus extend the number of their followers. Network theory predicted that popular players would become even more popular (preferential attachment, cf
Matthew Katz and Bob Heere
The authors explore the formation of a new brand community to increase our understanding of the development of particular social networks within this overall new community. An ethnographic study was conducted among four tailgating groups of a new college team during its inaugural season. The method was chosen to gain insight into how individual consumers interacted with each other and how these early interactions contributed to the development of a brand community. To examine these interactions, social network theory was used to examine the relationships between the individuals within a larger group setting. Adopting this theoretical approach allowed the authors to observe that newly created groups follow the principles of scale-free networks, where some consumers act as leaders and others as followers. The implications for both highly committed leaders and noncommittal followers within each social network are discussed.
Joanne MacLean, Laura Cousens and Martha Barnes
The Canadian Sport Policy advocates for increased interaction among sport organizations as a means to create a more efficient and effective system. The purpose of this study was to explore the existence and nature of linkages among a network of community basketball providers. Network theory focuses on the interconnections of organizations by considering the structural, social, and economic bonds of cooperative behavior. Quantitative data were collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using network software UCINET 6 to assess the numbers and types of linkages among a network of community basketball organizations (n = 10) in one geographical region. Next, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders from the organizations and from their provincial/national governing bodies (n = 11) to assess the barriers to linkages among these organizations. Results indicated a loosely coupled network, wherein issues of power and dependence, uncertainty, and the lack of managerial structures to initiate and manage linkages prevailed.
When fourteen-year-old Nadia Comaneci won gold at the 1976 Olympic Games, her youthful appearance inspired concerns about the hard training of young gymnasts. These concerns frequently centered around the coach as a figure of authority with the power to potentially exploit young girls. This paper both confirms and questions this assumption through using an Actor Network Theory (ANT) perspective. It is argued that what has been missing from previous accounts of sports training and competition is the role that nonhumans play. It is shown how existing Foucauldian work examining gymnastics can be extended through demonstrating the Latourian notion that power is enacted through nonhumans. It is further suggested that the inclusion of nonhumans such as video cameras into the gymnastics network can potentially generate different power arrangements from the traditional authoritarian coach/athlete relationship. Latour’s concepts of mediators and intermediaries are used to show how nonhumans can have agency and affect gymnastics performance, demonstrating that power is shared among both human and nonhuman actants.