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Charles R. Thompson

The incidence of concussions and potential for long-term health effects has captured the attention of the media, general public, medical professionals, parents, and obviously the athletes themselves. Concussions have been blamed for a variety of mental and physical health issues. The athletic trainer is at the forefront of the concussion management team, as they are typically on the scene when the concussion occurs and are often the first medical personnel to evaluate and, hopefully, remove the athlete from activity. There has been controversy of late regarding the influence of coaches in the care of concussed athletes. Therefore, a move to the “medical model” of sports medicine management can go a long way in resolving conflict of interest issues regarding the care of concussed athletes. A comprehensive concussion team and protocol are also essential to providing the highest level of care. This article takes a closer look at concussion management in the collegiate arena, with a particular focus on Princeton University.

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Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, Megan N. Houston and Cailee E. Welch

Concussions resulting from sports and recreational activities are a significant concern in the pediatric population. The number of children and adolescents sustaining sport-related concussions is increasing and, as a result, legislation has been passed in all 50 states to ensure appropriate recognition and referral of pediatric athletes following concussion. The developing brain may make the diagnosis, assessment, and management of concussion more challenging for health care providers and requires the use of specific age-appropriate assessment tools. Concussion management must also include considerations for cognitive and physical rest, a collaborative concussion management team that includes medical and school personnel, and more conservative stepwise progressions for returning to school and to physical activity.

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Nicholas M. Hattrup, Rebekah L. Gardiner, Hannah Gray, Cailee E. Welch Bacon and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

necessary or required to meet the standard of care. While there may be differing opinions on the need for baseline neurocognitive testing, 1 , 3 the use of baseline neurocognitive assessments are widely utilized with 71.2% of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting 4 and 74.9% in the collegiate

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Ke’La Porter, Carolina Quintana and Matthew Hoch

neuromuscular control during a dripping task, more specifically increased knee valgus. Assessing this neurocognitive domain may be useful in identifying athletes with reduced neuromuscular control. Athletes who performed poorer on baseline neurocognitive assessments also demonstrated knee kinetics and

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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Gary W. Cohen, Melissa C. Kay, Dayna K. Tierney and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

athletic trainers noted the lack of experience community physicians had with interpreting information collected from neurocognitive assessments, such as the ImPACT test. In her local area in South Dakota, Sydney noted, “we do not have any neuropsychologists that are able to look at the ImPACT test results

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Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno and Alessandra di Cagno

exercise. Neurocognitive Assessment The neurocognitive assessment was performed in the university’s medical offices, without any kinds of distraction to avoid influences on the neurocognitive scores. The three tests used for the assessment of memory and memory complaint are described below. The Rey 15

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Christopher P. Tomczyk, George Shaver and Tamerah N. Hunt

. College athletes who present with anxiety at baseline may be susceptible to decreased performance on neurocognitive assessments, specifically in the domain of reaction time (simple and complex). 5 – 7 Only Bailey et al 5 specifically looked at the concussion baseline assessment, but Williams and

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

surrounding the neurocognitive assessment of concussion stems from serving as a neuropsychological intern during a master’s program in which I assisted with conducting comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations on retired National Football League (NFL) players referred to our service due to cognitive

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Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon and Tamerah Nicole Hunt

-approved informed consent and assent forms prior to the start of the study. All research was approved by the institutions’ IRB. Main Outcome Measures ImPACT is an internet-based neurocognitive assessment battery. 22 , 28 , 29 The assessment is comprised of 6 tests that measure 3 speed indices: simple reaction time

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J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Jason P. Mihalik

, life stressors) were collected at a single laboratory session. Neurocognitive testing was completed using the CNS Vital Signs (CNS Vital Signs, Chapel Hill, NC). It is a computerized neurocognitive assessment using 8 reliable neurocognitive tests to generate 11 cognitive domain scores. The CNS Vital