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Lindsay Shaw, Leonard Zaichkowsky and Vietta Wilson

The present paper evaluated the efficacy of a biofeedback/neurofeedback training program to create an optimal preperformance state to improve gymnasts’ balance beam performance in competition. Training to increase heart rate variability (HRV) and sensorimotor rhythm while inhibiting theta was provided to 11 Division I gymnasts in 10 15-min sessions. Results of this uncontrolled study indicated that competition scores and scores from an independently judged video assessment improved throughout the training, beta decreased from preto postassessment, and there were no changes in HRV, sensorimotor rhythm, or theta. The withdrawal of training resulted in a decline of competition scores.

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

Neurofeedback training (NFT) and biofeedback training (BFT) refer to a set of procedures, guided by a practitioner, that use equipment to measure, process, and feed back neurological and physiological information that contributes to the development of greater self-awareness and voluntary control

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Ming-Yang Cheng, Chung-Ju Huang, Yu-Kai Chang, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack and Tsung-Min Hung

Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

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Margaret Dupee, Tanya Forneris and Penny Werthner

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived outcomes of a biofeedback and neurofeedback training intervention with high performance athletes. Five Olympic level athletes preparing for world championships and the 2012 Olympic Games took part in a 20 session intervention over the period of one year. At the completion of the intervention, a semistructured interview was conducted with each athlete. The athletes indicated that they became more self-aware, were better able to self-regulate both their physiological and psychological states, developed a greater sense of personal control, and a greater understanding of skills inherent in the field of sport psychology. Three of the athletes made the Canadian Olympic team for the 2012 Olympic Games and two of those athletes won bronze medals. The present study suggests that biofeedback and neurofeedback training may be useful in enabling athletes to perform optimally, in both training and competition, on a consistent basis.

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

neurofeedback training to improve precision motor performance. The first two types of studies were classified as case-control designs, while the interventional study, which included only three participants, was categorized as a non-RCT design. For studies measuring alpha power, four individual

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Leonard Zaichkowsky

While clinical psychology has embraced the importance of psychophysiology and neuroscience when considering the client condition, the field of sport psychology has been slower to consider the potential importance of this area for athletic clientele. Therefore, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology was conceptualized and constructed to describe the current state of psychophysiological and neuroscience research and illustrate how clinical sport psychologists may, in the future, use technologies such as biofeedback/neurofeedback and physiological measurement (EMG, EEG, skin temperature, EDR, HR, HRV, respiration, and hormonal responses) with high-level athletes from a variety of sports for both performance enhancement and diagnosis and management of head injury. As Guest Editor of this unique special issue, I have written the present introduction to highlight the issue’s important mission. This introductory paper sets the stage for five informative and cutting-edge articles by leading professionals. In all, the articles cover an array of topics on psychophysiology and neuroscience in sport, such as (a) the theoretical underpinnings of biofeedback/neurofeedback, (b) the empirical application of such approaches, (c) the current state of efficacy with regard to this newer line of research and practice, and (d) the use of fMRI in understanding psychological processes in sport. I hope that this timely special issue provokes many additional questions and advanced research in our collective pursuit to assist athletes.

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

conditions. To achieve such conditions, Wilson et al. ( 2006 ) used a “no-thinking technique” with neurofeedback training for Italy’s world cup football team. This quiet mind (QM) technique produced improved performances. To summarize, optimal performance seems to be associated with a QM ( Gardner & Moore

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery and Jeremiah Weinstock

applications includes physiological feedback mechanisms (i.e., biofeedback, neurofeedback). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a biofeedback measurement that has received increasing attention, largely due to improvements in availability and portability of technology ( Bar-Eli, 2002 ; Beauchamp, Harvey

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Bradley D. Hatfield, Calvin M. Lu and Jo B. Zimmerman

accelerated learning, virtual-immersion practice settings, neurofeedback, resilience to stress, sport management organizations that promote athlete development, team dynamics, trust, cognitive load, and assistive robotics and human-machine interfacing, as well as rehabilitation optimization. We covered a rich