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Thomas Toolis, Andrew Cooke, Marko S. Laaksonen, and Kerry McGawley

associated with cardiovascular load. As such, training biathletes to increase their FMT before pulling the trigger may be an effective method for improving shooting performance in the context of a biathlon race. Neurofeedback training is a technique that has been used to help regulate specific brain activity

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

neurofeedback training to improve precision motor performance. The first two types of studies were classified as case-control designs, while the interventional study, which included only three participants, was categorized as a non-RCT design. For studies measuring alpha power, four individual

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Margaret Dupee, Tanya Forneris, and Penny Werthner

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived outcomes of a biofeedback and neurofeedback training intervention with high performance athletes. Five Olympic level athletes preparing for world championships and the 2012 Olympic Games took part in a 20 session intervention over the period of one year. At the completion of the intervention, a semistructured interview was conducted with each athlete. The athletes indicated that they became more self-aware, were better able to self-regulate both their physiological and psychological states, developed a greater sense of personal control, and a greater understanding of skills inherent in the field of sport psychology. Three of the athletes made the Canadian Olympic team for the 2012 Olympic Games and two of those athletes won bronze medals. The present study suggests that biofeedback and neurofeedback training may be useful in enabling athletes to perform optimally, in both training and competition, on a consistent basis.

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo, and Penny Werthner

Neurofeedback training (NFT) and biofeedback training (BFT) refer to a set of procedures, guided by a practitioner, that use equipment to measure, process, and feed back neurological and physiological information that contributes to the development of greater self-awareness and voluntary control

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Lindsay Shaw, Leonard Zaichkowsky, and Vietta Wilson

The present paper evaluated the efficacy of a biofeedback/neurofeedback training program to create an optimal preperformance state to improve gymnasts’ balance beam performance in competition. Training to increase heart rate variability (HRV) and sensorimotor rhythm while inhibiting theta was provided to 11 Division I gymnasts in 10 15-min sessions. Results of this uncontrolled study indicated that competition scores and scores from an independently judged video assessment improved throughout the training, beta decreased from preto postassessment, and there were no changes in HRV, sensorimotor rhythm, or theta. The withdrawal of training resulted in a decline of competition scores.

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Ming-Yang Cheng, Chung-Ju Huang, Yu-Kai Chang, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack, and Tsung-Min Hung

Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, and Serge Brand

conditions. To achieve such conditions, Wilson et al. ( 2006 ) used a “no-thinking technique” with neurofeedback training for Italy’s world cup football team. This quiet mind (QM) technique produced improved performances. To summarize, optimal performance seems to be associated with a QM ( Gardner & Moore

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Peiyuan Wang, Frank J. Infurna, and Sydney Y. Schaefer

. ( 2017 ). Cognitive improvement and brain changes after real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training in healthy elderly and prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease . Frontiers in Neurology, 8, 384 . PubMed ID: 28848488 doi:10.3389/fneur.2017.00384 10.3389/fneur.2017.00384 Jeunet , C. , Jahanpour , E

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery, and Jeremiah Weinstock

biofeedback and neurofeedback training intervention for optimal performance: Learning to enhance self-awareness and self-regulation with olympic athletes . Sport Psychologist, 30 ( 4 ), 339 – 349 . doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0028 10.1123/tsp.2016-0028 Fraser , M.G. ( 2006 ). Coping strategies used by

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke, and James Hardy

.g., by neurofeedback training). Conscious Processing and Performance During Pressure Our second set of predictions concerned psychological pressure. Specifically, based on reinvestment theory ( Masters & Maxwell, 2008 ), we expected that an increase in pressure would elicit increases in conscious processing and