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Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead, and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis, and Keith Davids

An estimated 6% of people in the United Kingdom have some form of neurological motor disorder ( MacDonald, Cockerell, Sander, & Shorvon, 2000 ) that affects participation in health-related activities and poses a challenge for society to promote the health and well-being of all its members ( Coates

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Steven M. Davi, Colleen K. Woxholdt, Justin L. Rush, Adam S. Lepley, and Lindsey K. Lepley

supramaximal stimulus techniques is the capability of SampEn to comprehensively evaluate data-rich neurophysiological signals in order to quantify irregularities typically obscured by analysis of discrete points alone. 5 This process enables the detection of neurologic dysfunction by revealing underlying

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Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

), joint- and orthopedic-related conditions, such as rheumatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lower back pain ( Enblom et al., 2016 ; Verhagen et al., 2012 ). However, some neurological conditions have also featured, with systematic reviews on clients with cerebral palsy (CP; Roostaei et al., 2017

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Byron Lai, Katie Cederberg, Kerri A. Vanderbom, C. Scott Bickel, James H. Rimmer, and Robert W. Motl

People with neurologic disabilities, including multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), remain largely inactive, despite a substantial growth in evidence from clinical trials demonstrating beneficial outcomes following exercise training. For example, a

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Vithusha Coomaran, Ali Khan, Erin Tyson, Holly Bardutz, Tristan D. Hopper, and Cameron S. Mang

It is estimated that one in every six people have a neurological condition, such as stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), brain injury, multiple sclerosis (MS), or Parkinson’s disease, with increasing prevalence among older adults ( Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2017 ; The Neurological

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Ghazala T. Saleem, Jeanne Langan, Jacob I. McPherson, Beth S. Slomine, E. Mark Mahone, Martha Bridge Denckla, and Stacy J. Suskauer

; Woollacott & Shumway-Cook, 1990 ). Bernstein’s postulation is further upheld by neurophysiological understanding of posture, which illustrates that neuromuscular and neurological circuitry interact to regulate postural orientation and equilibrium ( Ivanenko & Gurfinkel, 2018 ). Based on Bernstein’s theory as

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Charline Madelaine, Nicolas Benguigui, and Michèle Molina

children present a high risk for a wide range of developmental disorders or delay (e.g.,  Allen, 2008 ; Arnaud et al., 2007 ; Davis, Ford, Anderson, & Doyle, 2007 ; Marret et al., 2015 ; Pierrat et al., 2017 ). These developmental disorders or delay are observed with or without neurological brain

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Gregory G. Billy and Sayers J. Miller

An avid weightlifter presented with complaints of right arm and hand numbness. His workup was consistent with neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome with severe conduction block at the level of the supraclavicular fossa. He chose conservative treatment, which focused on correction of thoracic and cervical segmental dysfunction, upper crossed syndrome muscle imbalances, and upper trunk and anterior forward head postural concerns. Upon completion of the therapy program and continuation of a home exercise program, his conduction block and symptoms resolved. Conservative treatment may be an effective alternative to surgery for neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome.

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Kay Tetzlaff, Holger Schöppenthau, and Jochen D. Schipke


It has been widely believed that tissue nitrogen uptake from the lungs during breath-hold diving would be insufficient to cause decompression stress in humans. With competitive free diving, however, diving depths have been ever increasing over the past decades.


A case is presented of a competitive free-diving athlete who suffered stroke-like symptoms after surfacing from his last dive of a series of 3 deep breath-hold dives. A literature and Web search was performed to screen for similar cases of subjects with serious neurological symptoms after deep breath-hold dives.

Case Details:

A previously healthy 31-y-old athlete experienced right-sided motor weakness and difficulty speaking immediately after surfacing from a breathhold dive to a depth of 100 m. He had performed 2 preceding breath-hold dives to that depth with surface intervals of only 15 min. The presentation of symptoms and neuroimaging findings supported a clinical diagnosis of stroke. Three more cases of neurological insults were retrieved by literature and Web search; in all cases the athletes presented with stroke-like symptoms after single breath-hold dives of depths exceeding 100 m. Two of these cases only had a short delay to recompression treatment and completely recovered from the insult.


This report highlights the possibility of neurological insult, eg, stroke, due to cerebral arterial gas embolism as a consequence of decompression stress after deep breath-hold dives. Thus, stroke as a clinical presentation of cerebral arterial gas embolism should be considered another risk of extreme breath-hold diving.