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Kyle R. Barnes, Will G. Hopkins, Michael R. McGuigan and Andrew E. Kilding


Runners use uphill running as a movement-specific form of resistance training to enhance performance. However, the optimal parameters for prescribing intervals are unknown. The authors adopted a dose-response design to investigate the effects of various uphill interval-training programs on physiological and performance measures.


Twenty well-trained runners performed an incremental treadmill test to determine aerobic and biomechanical measures, a series of jumps on a force plate to determine neuromuscular measures, and a 5-km time trial. Runners were then randomly assigned to 1 of 5 uphill interval-training programs. After 6 wk all tests were repeated. To identify the optimal training program for each measure, each runner’s percentage change was modeled as a quadratic function of the rank order of the intensity of training. Uncertainty in the optimal training and in the corresponding effect on the given measure was estimated as 90% confidence limits using bootstrapping.


There was no clear optimum for time-trial performance, and the mean improvement over all intensities was 2.0% (confidence limits ±0.6%). The highest intensity was clearly optimal for running economy (improvement of 2.4% ± 1.4%) and for all neuromuscular measures, whereas other aerobic measures were optimal near the middle intensity. There were no consistent optima for biomechanical measures.


These findings support anecdotal reports for incorporating uphill interval training in the training programs of distance runners to improve physiological parameters relevant to running performance. Until more data are obtained, runners can assume that any form of high-intensity uphill interval training will benefit 5-km time-trial performance.

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

training process to improve performance during the preparation period. In addition, there is limited and contrasting information regarding the effect of the preparation period on neuromuscular characteristics of basketball players. Aoki et al 6 and Hoffman et al 12 investigated the changes in vertical

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Jianhua Wu, Toyin Ajisafe and Matthew Beerse

This study used both time and frequency domain analyses to investigate walking patterns with ankle load in children and adults. Twenty-two children aged 7–10 years and 20 young adults participated in this study. Three levels of ankle load were manipulated: no load, low load (2% of body mass on each side), and high load (4% of body mass on each side). An instrumented treadmill was used to register vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and spatiotemporal parameters, and peak vertical GRFs were determined. A frequency domain analysis was conducted on the vertical GRF data. Results demonstrate that, in the time domain, children showed adult-like spatiotemporal parameters and adult-like timing and magnitude of the 2 peak vertical GRFs under each load. In the frequency domain, children produced a lower power from the second harmonic than young adults, although both groups showed the highest power from this harmonic and increased this power with ankle load. It was concluded that children aged 7–10 years may start showing adult-like neuromuscular adaptations to increasing ankle load and display similar spatiotemporal control of foot falls and foot–floor kinetic interaction; however, a frequency domain analysis is effective in revealing different kinetic and neuromuscular characteristics between children and adults.

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Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas

It is well established that aging is associated with a decrease in maximal strength and an even more dramatic reduction in rapid neuromuscular characteristics such as power output and rate of force development (RFD) ( Izquierdo, Aguado, Gonzalez, Lopez, & Häkkinen, 1999 ; Klass, Baudry

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Timothy C. Sell, Mita T. Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Michael D. Wirt, John P. Abt and Scott M. Lephart

gender-specific physical training. For example, in civilian athletic populations, such as basketball and soccer, females are at greater risk for knee injuries 2 and also demonstrate gender-specific differences in musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and neuromuscular characteristics that are associated with

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Conall F. Murtagh, Christopher Nulty, Jos Vanrenterghem, Andrew O’Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust and Robert M. Erskine

V-power correlated significantly with relative L f (Table  4 ). Unilateral medial CMJ peak V-power correlated inversely with mean vastus lateralis activation in the downward phase (Table  4 ). Discussion The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in neuromuscular characteristics

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Nicola Marotta, Andrea Demeco, Gerardo de Scorpio, Angelo Indino, Teresa Iona and Antonio Ammendolia

, and increased anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes . Br J Sports Med . 2005 ; 39 ( 6 ): 347 – 350 . PubMed ID: 15911605 doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018572 15911605 9. Rozzi SL , Lephart SM , Gear WS , Fu FH . Knee joint laxity and neuromuscular characteristics of

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast and Gareth Irwin

phases. 2 The capability of an athlete to generate forward COM acceleration mainly depends on the sprinter’s (1) neuromuscular characteristics and musculoskeletal mechanical properties and (2) technical ability to move the body mass forward. 5 , 6 With respect to (1), during the start and early

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Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas

anterior cruciate ligament injury . BMC Musculoskelet Disord . 2015 ; 16 ( 1 ): 28 . PubMed ID: 25887306 doi:10.1186/s12891-015-0472-y 10.1186/s12891-015-0472-y 25887306 30. Padua DA , Bell DR , Clark MA . Neuromuscular characteristics of individuals displaying excessive medial knee displacement

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Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka and Takahiro Otsudo

: 16807104 doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.015 16807104 17. Padua DA , Bell DR , Clark MA , et al . Neuromuscular characteristics of individuals displaying excessive medial knee displacement . J Athl Train . 2012 ; 47 ( 5 ): 525 – 536 . PubMed ID: 23068590 doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.5.10 23068590