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James R. Tresilian

The λ version of the equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis for motor control is examined in light of recent criticisms of its various instantiations. Four important assumptions that have formed the basis for recent criticism are analyzed: First, the assumption that intact muscles possess invariant force-length characteristics (ICs). Second, that these ICs are of the same form in agonist-antagonist pairs. Third, that muscle control is monoparametric and that the control parameter, λ, can be given a neurophysiological interpretation. Fourth, that reflex loop time delays and the known, asymmetric, nonlinear mechanical properties of muscles can be ignored. Mechanical and neurophysiological investigations of the neuromuscular system suggests that none of these assumptions is likely to be correct. This has been taken to mean that the EP hypothesis is oversimplified and a new approach is needed. It is argued that such an approach can be provided without rejecting the EP hypothesis, rather to regard it as an input-output description of muscle and associated segmental circuits. The operation of the segmental circuitry can be interpreted as having the function, at least in part, of compensating for a variety of nonlinearities and asymmetries such that the overall system implements the λ-EP model equations.

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Anna Woch and Réjean Plamondon

This article reviews the current status of the movement primitives problem, especially the question of their description and identification, and points out some challenges that are stillwhich remain unsolved by the approaches that are frequently adopted to study human movements. We use the framework of the kinematic theory proposed by Plamondon (1995 and 1998) as an example of a hybrid model thatthat allows a precise and flexible quantitative description of human movements. It is shown that the theory can be used to encompass the various types of rapid movement encountered in the field. Namely, tThe principal aim of this article is to highlight the fact that the notion of movement primitive movements should not necessarily be confined to movements with a single velocity peak, as it is still often assumed in many models. The model allows, for example, a simple description of a movement primitivethat, which might contain up to two direction reversals.

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Kevin C. Miller, Kenneth L. Knight, Steven R. Wilding and Marcus B. Stone


Electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMC) do not last long enough to study many cramp treatments. Increasing stimulation frequency lengthens cramp duration; it is unknown which frequency elicits the longest EIMC.


To determine which stimulation frequency elicits the longest EIMC and whether cramp duration and stimulation frequency are correlated.


Randomized, crossover.




20 participants (12 male, 8 female; age 20.7 ± 0.6 y; height 174.9 ± 1.9 cm; mass 76.6 ± 2.2 kg) with a self-reported history of muscle cramps in their lower extremities within the 6 mo before the study.


The dominant leg’s tibial nerve was percutaneously stimulated with 2-s-duration electrical stimuli trains starting at a frequency of 4 Hz. After 1 min of rest, stimulation frequency increased in 2-Hz increments until a cramp occurred in the flexor hallucis brevis. The stimulation frequency at which a cramp occurred was termed cramp threshold frequency (TF). Cramp duration was determined using strict clinical criteria (loss of hallux rigidity and return of hallux neutral). On the next 4 consecutive days, participants were stimulated at 5, 10, 15, or 20 Hz above TF, and cramp duration was reassessed.

Main Outcome Measures:

Cramp TF and duration.


Cramp TF was 16.9 ± 5.1 Hz. Cramp duration was longer at 15 and 20 Hz above TF (77.9 ± 37.6 s and 69.5 ± 36.9 s, respectively) than at TF (40.8 ± 34.0 s; P < .05). Cramp duration and TF were highly correlated (r = .90). Conclusions: Stimulating at 15 and 20 Hz above cramp TF produces the longest-lasting EIMC.

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Conrad M. Gabler, Adam S. Lepley, Tim L. Uhl and Carl G. Mattacola

Clinical Scenario:

Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95–1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals of their patients.

Focused Clinical Question:

Is TENS or cryotherapy the more effective disinhibitory modality for treating QA failure (quantified via CAR) in patients with knee pathologies?

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Mohammad H. Izadi Farhadi, Foad Seidi, Hooman Minoonejad and Abbey C. Thomas

Context: Many factors have been reported contributing to altering the neuromuscular function of hip and knee muscles. The lumbar hyperlordosis, as a poor posture in some athletes, is thought to be associated with the alteration of the hip and knee muscles activity. Objective: To examine the activation of selected hip and knee muscles in athletes with and without lumbar hyperlordosis during functional activities. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Twenty-six college male athletes (n = 13 with and n = 13 without lumbar hyperlordosis). Interventions: Surface electromyography of gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), and vastus lateralis (VL) were recorded during single-leg squat and single-leg jump landing (SLJL) tasks. Main Outcome Measure: Preactivity; reactivity; and onset muscle during SLJL and eccentric activity during single-leg squat (GMAX, GMED, VMO, and VL along with the ratio of VMO:VL) were assessed. Results: Athletes with lumbar hyperlordosis had a higher level of activity in their GMAX (P = .003), VMO (P = .04), and VL (P = .01) muscles at the moment before foot contact during SLJL. These athletes also demonstrated a higher level of GMAX activity (P = .01) immediately after foot contact. Finally, athletes with lumbar hyperlordosis activated their GMAX sooner (P = .02) during the SLJL. Athletes with normal lumbar lordosis had more activity in their GMED muscle (P = .001) in the descending phase of the single-leg squat task and a higher VMO:VL (P = .01) at the moment after the foot contact during the SLJL. Conclusion: The altered activation of GMAX, GMED, VMO, VL, and VMO:VL can reveal the role of lumbar hyperlordosis in the knee and hip muscles’ alteration in athletes. Further study is needed to identify whether these alterations in the hip and knee muscles contribute to injury in athletes.

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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

Context: Intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises are utilized clinically in the treatment of foot and ankle conditions. However, the effectiveness of training on IFM motor function is unknown. Objective: To study the effects of a 4-week IFM exercise program on motor function, perceived difficulty, and IFM motor activation measured using ultrasound imaging (USI) during 3 IFM exercises. Design: Single-blinded randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 24 healthy, recreationally active young adults without history of ankle–foot injury who have never performed IFM exercises participated (12 males and 12 females; mean age = 21.5 [4.8] y; body mass index = 23.5 [2.9] kg/m2) Intervention: Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group received a 4-week progressive home IFM exercise program performed daily. Participants in the control group did not receive any intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Clinician-assessed motor performance (4-point scale: 0 = does not initiate movement and 3 = performs exercise in standard pattern), participant-perceived difficulty (5-point Likert scale: 1 = very easy and 5 = very difficult), and USI motor activation measures (contracted measurementresting measurement) of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, and flexor hallucis brevis were assessed during toe-spread-out, hallux-extension, and lesser-toe-extension exercises. Results: The intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in motor performance in the toe-spread-out exercise (pre = 1.9 [0.5], post = 2.6 [0.5], P = .008) and less perceived difficulty in the toe-spread-out (pre = 3.1 [1.3], post = 2.3 [1.2], P = .01), hallux-extension (pre = 3.2 [1.5], post = 2.0 [1.2], P = .005), and lesser-toe-extension (pre = 1.9 [0.7], post = 1.2 [0.4], P = .03) exercises. Both groups demonstrated increased USI motor activation in the abductor hallucis during the toe-spread-out exercise (intervention: pre = 1.07 [0.06], post = 1.11 [0.08] and control: pre = 1.08 [0.06], post = 1.11 [0.06]; P = .05). No other significant main effects or group by time interactions were observed. Conclusion: A 4-week IFM exercise intervention resulted in improved motor performance and decreased perceived difficulty when performing the exercises, but not changes in USI measures of IFM activation compared with a control group.

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

walkers possess a refined neuromuscular system that is optimally coordinated to reduce the metabolic demand throughout race walking gait. It appears that this is achieved through the modulation of muscle activity to affect the efficient joint biomechanics. Also, the importance of proximal posterior muscle

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

modality, requiring very light and inexpensive equipment (compared with specific ergometers), could be very interesting to train muscle velocity capacities, that is, the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce force at high muscle contraction velocities. The main finding was that HSJ modalities

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

that might contribute to overuse of the neuromuscular system and ultimately lead to isolated muscle fatigue. In conjunction with formulating an algorithm to determine muscle activation patterns based on field mechanical properties, future research should investigate the prospect of using specialized

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Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan and Rudi Meir

that RFE may play a beneficial role in human movement in a manner that is 2-fold: (1) to enhance or maintain force production in situations requiring high amounts of force, for example, landings, downstairs walking, and falls prevention following perturbation, particularly when the neuromuscular system