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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

research provides additional support to this concept by analyzing neuromuscular and metabolic response on sports fields exhibiting different mechanical properties. The findings suggest muscle activation and recruitment patterns are influenced by the time-dependent properties of a surface which causes the

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

. Basketball is an intermittent team sport characterized by changes of actions every 2 to 3 seconds 10 ; therefore, neuromuscular abilities (ie, power, strength, and speed) are heavily taxed during basketball matches. 11 Specifically, the ability to quickly change direction and jumping performance appear to

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

– 3 Although these factors play a crucial role in running performance, additional factors such as effective running biomechanics and neuromuscular control are of interest to coaches and applied sports scientists as they are relatively easy to assess and may be more modifiable. Recently, Moore 4

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Daria Neyroud, Jimmy Samararatne, Bengt Kayser and Nicolas Place

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which consists of delivering bursts of electrical current to a muscle, to depolarize terminal axonal motoneuron branches, is widely used for strength training and rehabilitation. It can be less time consuming than voluntary training, 1 and presents the

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Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas

It is well established that aging is associated with a decrease in maximal strength and an even more dramatic reduction in rapid neuromuscular characteristics such as power output and rate of force development (RFD) ( Izquierdo, Aguado, Gonzalez, Lopez, & Häkkinen, 1999 ; Klass, Baudry

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Martin Buchheit, Mathieu Lacome, Yannick Cholley and Ben Michael Simpson

/tactical requirements, high and qualitative neuromuscular demands (eg, a high number of players/playing area ratio, maximal intensity of actions with adequate rest periods). Despite the increasing interest in such a training approach, and despite the seductive theoretical basis of horizontal alternation, little is

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Karenina Arrais Guida Modesto, Pedro Ferreira Alves de Oliveira, Hellora Gonçalves Fonseca, Klaus Porto Azevedo, Vinicius Guzzoni, Martim Bottaro, Nicolas Babault and Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely used to induce muscle strengthening and to reduce muscle atrophy through increment of the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers. 1 – 4 The kilohertz-frequency alternating current (KFAC) and low-frequency pulsed current (PC) have been

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Kieran Cooke, Tom Outram, Raph Brandon, Mark Waldron, Will Vickery, James Keenan and Jamie Tallent

provide indirect measurements of an athlete’s functional state, it is preferable to accompany these monitoring strategies with direct assessments of neuromuscular function. For example, vertical jump testing, 20-m sprint tests, and peak power assessment using a cycle ergometer are popular isoinertial

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Conall F. Murtagh, Christopher Nulty, Jos Vanrenterghem, Andrew O’Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust and Robert M. Erskine

independent lower-limb power qualities in soccer players. 3 However, no attempt has been made to investigate the neuromuscular factors underpinning direction-specific (soccer associated) CMJ performance. Such information could be used to inform the neuromuscular factors that should be considered when

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Maria Angelika Peer and Nigel Gleeson

preventing ligamentous injury. 3 Potentially harmful dynamic forces need counteracting by synergistic patterns of muscular activation and timely neuromuscular system responses in order to protect ligamentous tissue against injury. 3 , 4 The knee flexors restrain anterior tibio-femoral displacement and